1st Anniversary of my Blog! (16-17 January 2013 – present) Thank you for your support! Deo Gratias!

As of tonight, the time between 16 and 17 January 2014, my blog reaches its 1 year mark. It was begun with an inspiration exactly a year ago, just a month after I created my twitter account, inspired by the example of our dear Pope Benedict XVI who made the @Pontifex papal twitter account in early December 2012.

I thank all of those who had chanced upon my blog, and for my regular readers. I apologise for any mistakes I have made or any delay in my postings. The Lord had been kind to me throughout this past year, and He continues to encourage me to write despite some difficulties and challenges I have met along the way.

May this coming new year for my blog bring it to even greater heights, as I will soon write more about the Faith, the Church, and many catechesis of the Faith, from various official sources such as the Catechism of the Catholic Church, the Canon Law, and many others. Thank you once again for your support, and may God bless you all!

May our faith continue to strengthen and grow in God!


Yours in Christ,


+Peter Canisius Michael David Kang

Ut Omnes Unum Sint, ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam

(That they all may be One, for the greater glory of God)

Wednesday, 12 June 2013 : 10th Week of Ordinary Time (Scripture Reflection)

Dear brothers and sisters in Christ, Christ is our Lord and Messiah. His coming was told in the numerous prophecies by the prophets as written throughout the Old Testament of the Scripture. His coming was indeed not to destroy the Law as written in the Scripture, and not to abolish the teachings of the prophets and the Law and commandments that God has given to Moses, but to fulfill and complete all the prophecies made about Him.

In the first reading today, we also heard about how the ‘text’ of the Law brings death, while the Spirit brings life, and it also seemingly criticise those who minister to the Law. In this we can clearly see, that in his letter to the faithful in Corinth, he was referring to the chief priests and the Pharisees, whom Christ repeatedly called hypocrites, and whom repeatedly had caused troubles during the Lord’s earthly ministry.

Therefore, brothers and sisters, today we are called to live out the Law of God, the Law which God had given to Moses, and then perfected and completely fulfilled by Christ, His Son, that we do not become slaves to the Law, but become alive due to that Law, which is, according to Christ, is all about love, for God Himself is love.

The chief priests and the Pharisees had grown so accustomed and so attached to the Law, that they had entirely forgotten the Spirit of the Law, that is love, and they had entirely misunderstood the meaning of the Law, and its purpose, becoming instead mindless slaves to their own human traditions, which their ancestors established in rituals and traditions to worship the Lord, but over time, becoming corrupted with worldly desires and impurities.

Rituals and observations of the Law had become empty, and prayers had become stale, and lacking the freshness of the Spirit of the Lord. That was what Christ had criticised, when the Pharisees went praying in the public places, showcasing their piety for all to see. That they love human glory instead of seeking heavenly glory of God and praising God, and instead of using the Law as it is intended, they had abused it to their own purposes.

That is why Christ came into our world, not just to be our Saviour, but also to perfect the Law of God, and to explain them clearly to the people of God, that they would no longer misinterpret the Law and therefore sin in the eyes of the Lord. He revealed to those whom He had chosen and those who were willing to listen to His word.

The same too, brothers and sisters in Christ, applies to our Church today. We have our own Law in the Church, that is the Canon Law, to regulate matters pertaining to the Church and the faithful in God, and also the liturgical laws to regulate the way we worship the Law with its rituals and observations, much like that observed by the priests of Israel of old, and during Jesus’ time.

We have to obey these laws and norms, my brothers and sisters in Christ, particularly regarding the Mass and the liturgy, because in the Mass we worship the Lord Himself, and we have to do it worthily. Sadly, there are many today who simply do not care about the liturgy and the proper worship of the Mass as written in the Law of the Church, as are evident in the numerous liturgical abuses in the Masses all around the world.

What is important is, not that we should not obey these laws, nor should we disregard them, but to understand them, by proper preparation and explanations, just as Christ Himself once had done regarding the Laws of Moses, which were given by God. A proper understanding of our Church laws and the liturgical norms in the Mass is a must, brothers and sisters, for improper understanding will certainly lead us astray from God.

But on the other hand, neither should we be so fixated on the rules and the Law that we end up doing everything just for the sake of obeying the Law. Then in that case we are no better than the Pharisees and the chief priest of Jesus’ time. We should not follow the rules simply for the sake of obeying the rules and looking good in the eyes of others.

A simple example would indeed be, the obligation for all of us to attend the Sunday Mass. While it may seem to be trivial, but how many of us actually come to the Mass because we want to come to the Mass and worship the Lord, as all of us should be? I am certain that many of us came to the Mass because we feel that it is an obligation to do so, and being good Catholics, we ‘obeyed’. But, this is not good, because if we do it this way, our heart will not be fully in the Mass, not fully attuned to the worship of the Lord, because our mind and our heart are elsewhere, in our businesses, our other occupations, and not focused towards the Lord.

No, when we come for the Mass, my brothers and sisters in Christ, let us make sure that we truly come to be with God, to love our God, and to praise Him and give thanks to Him for all the good graces and blessings that He had given us. Seek to understand more about our faith and about the Mass from those who have the knowledge and are qualified to teach about the faith to others. Remember, obey the Law because we love the Law and understand it, not just for the sake of obedience, or worse, as a symbol of self-gratification and self-glorification. Amen.

Archbishop William Goh, the new Archbishop of Singapore


As of today, Saturday, 18 May 2013, on the eve of the Pentecost Sunday, the Holy See and the Pope Francis has accepted the retirement of Archbishop Nicholas Chia, who will immediately become the Archbishop Emeritus of Singapore. This is in fulfillment of the Code of the Canon Law Can. 401§1, that all bishops upon reaching the age of 75 must tender their resignation to the Holy See, and the See will be empty once the resignation is accepted.

Chia Photo0001

(Above : The now Archbishop Emeritus Nicholas Chia of Singapore)

Archbishop William Goh, the Coadjutor Archbishop of Singapore, therefore, being the coadjutor archbishop, has an immediate right of succession, and thus immediately become the new Archbishop of Singapore, and the proper Ordinary of the Archdiocese, according to the Code of the Canon Law, Can. 404§1, as of today, Saturday, 18 May 2013.

Although today’s (18 May 2013) Vatican bollettino has yet to include this announcement of appointment, but as this news comes from the Apostolic Nunciature to Singapore, it is expected that by Monday, the bollettino will reflect this new change in the Church.


(Above : The new Archbishop of Singapore, Archbishop William Goh)

The installation Mass of the new Archbishop of Singapore is expected to be soon, to be held at the Cathedral of the Good Shepherd, which will also be soon closed for major renovation.


75th Birthday Anniversary of Archbishop Nicholas Chia Yeck Joo, Archbishop of Singapore (born 8 April 1938)


Today marks the 75th birthday anniversary of the Archbishop of Singapore, Archbishop Nicholas Chia. Ad multos annos, Your Excellency!

According to Canon Law 401, §1, all bishops must submit their resignation upon reaching the age of 75. Whether they will resign shortly or a while after the reached that age, depending on the decision of the Pope and the Congregation for Bishops, and whether the suitable candidate has been found.

In this case, as we already have a Coadjutor Archbishop, the Coadjutor Archbishop (William Goh) will take over as the new Archbishop of Singapore the moment the announcement of retirement of the current Archbishop (Nicholas Chia) is made by the Holy See.

(Check at Holy See Press Office daily bulletin at : http://attualita.vatican.va/sala-stampa/bollettino/en/index.html)

An excellent article on what a Coadjutor Archbishop/Bishop is (from the Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour, Archdiocese of Singapore)


The Article :

On December 29, 2012 the Vatican announced that Rev Msgr William Goh has been appointed as Coadjutor Archbishop of Singapore. What does this term “Coadjutor” mean? Read on to find out!

It’s been all over the catholic news in Singapore since our year of 2013 begun – the news of Rev Msgr William Goh being appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Singapore. In order to understand what this all means, read this article which explains in depth what a “Coadjutor bishop” is, what he does, and why he is appointed.

What is Coadjutor?

In terms of Sacramental Character or Sacramental “powers”, a Coadjutor bishop is truly a bishop, for he receives Episcopal consecration just like the diocesan bishop. He therefore has the power validly to ordain priests, to confirm, and to consecrate other bishops.

In terms of ecclesial “title”, the Coadjutor has similar a title to the resident Bishop, or in the case of our Archdiocese, the Coadjutor is similar in ecclesial honour to our Archbishop.

However, the jurisdiction, or governing authority, of a Coadjutor bishop is another matter. Within a given diocese, the existing diocesan bishop alone has full responsibility for the entire diocese which the Pope has entrusted to his care (cf Paul VI, Muto proprio, Pastorale manus, on the powers and privileges granted to bishops, 30 November 1963. AAS 56 (1964) c. 381.1).

A Coadjutor bishop, therefore, is not to be construed as a co-leader of a diocese, as he does not have full authority over that diocese—only the existing diocesan bishop himself does.

A coadjutor bishop, as described in canon 403.3, also is given special faculties. In a sense a Coadjutor bishop can be given governing power, but it is generally limited to certain geographic sections of the diocese, or to certain aspects of it. Regardless of a Coadjutor bishop’s duties, however, the existing diocesan bishop retains ultimate authority

Why appoint a “Coadjutor Bishop”?

The exact time when a bishop will be replaced by a successor is not always predictable, of course. Obviously, a diocesan bishop can always die unexpectedly, or find himself obliged to resign (for medical or other reasons) with relatively short notice.

In these cases, there is normally a period of time—ranging from months to even years, depending on the circumstances—when the diocese is without any bishop at all. The code provides strict rules about who has authority, and in which situations, during this vacancy (cf. Muto proprio, Pastorale manus cc. 416-430).

But often it is easy for Rome to foresee that a diocesan bishop will need to step down. Usually this is due to the bishop’s age. Diocesan bishops are requested to submit their resignation to the Holy Father when they reach their 75th birthday (c. 401.1).

The Pope is not, however, required to accept it, and he may choose to extend the bishop’s tenure in his diocese for many more years if he sees fit (and, of course, if the health of that diocesan bishop permits). But the Pope can, and frequently does, accept bishops’ resignations as soon as they are submitted—and in these cases a successor naturally has to be chosen as soon as possible.

In some case, the Holy Father may decide to pre-empt the resignation of the existing bishop, and after the due process of selection of a new bishop, he may name a coadjutor bishop for Bishop X’s diocese right now.

What are the benefits?

For instance, the coadjutor bishop already knows that in June, Bishop X will resign and he himself will be the new diocesan bishop. Between then and now, this gives the coadjutor bishop a period of several months to become acquainted with the diocese, its people and its problems—and since the soon-to-be-retired diocesan bishop is still present, he can give his successor-to-be some pointers!

What are the formalities required of a “coadjutor bishop” (cf Paul VI, Muto proprio, Pastorale manus, on the powers and privileges granted to bishops, 30 November 1963. AAS 56 (1964) c. 381.1):

The Coadjutor needs to formally “take office”

Can. 404 §1 The coadjutor Bishop takes possession of his office when, either personally or by proxy, he shows the apostolic letters of appointment to the diocesan Bishop and the college of consultors, in the presence of the chancellor of the curia, who makes a record of the fact.

§3 If the diocesan Bishop is wholly impeded, it is sufficient that either the coadjutor Bishop or the auxiliary Bishop show their apostolic letters of appointment to the college of consultors, in the presence of the chancellor of the curia.

He undertakes responsibilities and appointments

Can. 405 §1 The coadjutor Bishop and the auxiliary Bishop have the obligations and the rights which are determined by the provisions of the following canons and defined in their letters of appointment.

§2 The coadjutor Bishop, or the auxiliary Bishop mentioned in can. 403 §2, assists the diocesan Bishop in the entire governance of the diocese, and takes his place when he is absent or impeded.

Can. 406 §1 The coadjutor Bishop in can. 403 §2, is to be appointed a Vicar general by the diocesan Bishop. The diocesan Bishop is to entrust to him, in preference to others, those things which by law require a special mandate.

When dealing in matters requiring decisions

Can. 407 §1 For the greatest present and future good of the diocese, the diocesan Bishop, the coadjutor can. 403 §2, are to consult with each other on matters of greater importance.

§2 In assessing matters of greater importance, particularly those of a pastoral nature, the diocesan Bishop is to consult the auxiliary Bishop before all others.

§3 The coadjutor Bishop since they are called to share in the cares of the diocesan Bishop, should so exercise their office that they act and think in accord with him.

The coadjutor’s liturgical and pastoral functions

Can. 408 §1 As often as they are requested to do so by the diocesan Bishop, a coadjutor Bishop are obliged to perform those pontifical and other functions to which the diocesan Bishop is bound.

§2 Those episcopal rights and functions which the coadjutor can exercise are not habitually to be entrusted to another by the diocesan Bishop.

He has right to succession

Can. 409 §1 When the episcopal see falls vacant, the coadjutor immediately becomes the Bishop of the diocese for which he was appointed, provided he has lawfully taken possession.

Where must he reside

Can. 410 The coadjutor Bishop and the auxiliary Bishop are bound, like the diocesan Bishop, to reside in the diocese. Other than for the fulfilment of some duty outside the diocese, or for holidays, which are not to be longer than one month, they may not be away from the diocese except for a brief period.

Episcopal Ordination Mass & Reception

The Episcopal Mass and Reception in conjunction with the upcoming Ordination of our Coadjutor Archbishop, Rev Msgr William Goh will be held as follows:

Date : Friday 22 Feb 2013
Time : 7.30 pm
Venue : Singapore Expo (The Max Pavilion and Exhibition Hall 9)
1 Expo Drive, Singapore 486150
Presider : The Apostolic Nuncio to Singapore, Archbishop Leopoldo Girelli & assisted by our Archbishop Nicholas Chia and Archbishop Murphy Pakiam from Kuala Lumpur
Admission : Tickets will be allocated to Parishes by mid-Feb 2013
Dress Code : Smart casual

Date : Saturday 23 Feb 2013
Time : 2.00 pm to 5.00 pm
Venue : Catholic Spirituality Centre
1261 Upper Serangoon Road, Singapore 534796
Admission : No tickets required. Open to ALL parishioners to meet the new Coadjutor Archbishop
Dress Code : Smart casual

View article on Catholic News


The Parishioners at Our Lady of Perpetual Succour Church sends their heartiest congratulations and good wishes to Coadjutor Archbishop, Rev Msgr William Goh on his Episcopal Ordination.

We pray that the wisdom and strength of the Holy Spirit will be with him as he takes on the role as Shepherd for the Church in the Archdiocese of Singapore. May the good Lord Bless, guide and protect him always!

My Personal Comments and Additions: 

Therefore, in simple summary, coadjutors are successors to the diocesan bishop, while auxiliaries are helpers to the diocesan bishop. This does not mean that auxiliary bishops cannot be selected as the successor by the Pope, but it means that this kind of succession is not automatic, whereas coadjutors are guaranteed the succession (automatic).

But coadjutors actually do not always succeed the diocesan bishop, as in some cases, some coadjutors actually died before the diocesan bishop resigned, and therefore never succeeded as the rightful diocesan bishop. In some other cases, coadjutor of certain diocese may be reassigned as a bishop/archbishop of another diocese/archdiocese before their succession).

Lastly, as there are still confusion on the nature of coadjutor archbishop’s office, they are no longer assigned any titular see, which is a formerly active diocese that had been suppressed due to lack of Christians or historical reasons (Muslim conquest, etc., which is why many titular sees are actually ancient dioceses in North Africa and Eastern Mediterranean region), and then restored as a titular diocese.

Auxiliary bishops are assigned a titular see upon their appointment as auxiliary, and coadjutor bishop/archbishop too were once (before around 1970) assigned a titular see upon their appointment. However, in present practice, coadjutors are named as Coadjutor Bishop/Archbishop of the diocese/archdiocese that they are going to succeed in (example : Coadjutor Archbishop of Singapore (Archdiocese), William Goh), and no titular see is assigned to the coadjutor.

I hope these simple explanations do help many who still have questions in understanding more on the office of the bishop and his helpers (and successor).

+Ut Omnes Unum Sint, ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam+

(That they all may be One, for the greater glory of God)