Friday, 26 August 2016 : 21st Week of Ordinary Time (First Reading)

Liturgical Colour : Green

1 Corinthians 1 : 17-25

For Christ did not send me to baptise, but to proclaim His Gospel. And not with beautiful words! That would be like getting rid of the cross of Christ. The language of the cross remains nonsense for those who are lost.

Yet for us who are saved, it is the power of God, as Scripture says : I will destroy the wisdom of the wise and make fail the foresight of the foresighted. Masters of human wisdom, educated people, philosophers, you have no reply! And the wisdom of this world? God let it fail.

At first God spoke the language of wisdom, and the world did not know God through wisdom. Then God thought of saving the believers through the foolishness that we preach. The Jews ask for miracles and the Greeks for a higher knowledge, while we proclaim a crucified Messiah.

For the Jews, what a great scandal! And for the Greeks, what nonsense! But He is the Christ, the power of God and the wisdom of God for those called by God among both Jews and Greeks. In reality, the “foolishness” of God is wiser than humans, and the “weakness” of God is stronger than humans.

The Church, the Year of Faith, and Christian Unity : Ut Omnes Unum Sint (That they all may be One)

The Lord never said : “You are Peter, and I will make you the leader amongst thousands of churches and other leaders, and they can have their own customs and choose what they believe in, and we can also do what we like, and what we want.”

He did not say : “Peter, you will be one of the many, in a board of management of My ‘churches’, and that these churches were born from Me.”

No, what He truly said was :

“You are Peter, and on this Rock, I will build My Church (singular), and never will the powers of death overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven : whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you unbind on earth shall be unbound in heaven.”

For our Church is One, and all are united with the successor of St. Peter the Apostle, to whom God has entrusted to feed all of His sheep, and to whom He has entrusted the authority over all of the earth and mankind, the beloved people of God (‘whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you unbind on earth shall be unbound in heaven’), and that there is only One Body of Christ, all believing in Christ, and obeying the elders God has appointed over them, of which Peter and his successors are the chief shepherds, the chief elders, who then report to the very Chief Shepherd who will come again at the end of time.

For our faith in Christ is communal as it is personal. This is why we have our bishops, and our beloved Pope, Peter’s successor. For if not so, then all of us can just be our own priests, and just by thinking that we are saved by simply say, “Lord, Lord, I believe in you.”, and shutting ourselves from everyone else, caring only about our salvation.

No, not only will we not be saved by that way, we will be condemned by God, who will judge our ignorance and failure to live our faith by helping others around us, who are less fortunate, and need our help.

When a house is divided against itself, how can it stand and survive? When Satan is divided against himself, he will perish and not stand, just as what Christ said to the Pharisees when they accused Him of using the power of Beelzebub, Satan’s liutenant in casting out demons.

So, therefore, how can God’s Church stand if we are divided against ourselves? In order for us to stand the persecution of Satan in this world, we must first unite and gather our strength, that when Satan and his angels come to scourge God’s beloved people, we will be united as one against him, and as one Church, God will make us all righteous when He comes again in glory.

Let us pray therefore, that in this Year of Faith, our faith in God will ever be strengthened, and will never falter, and that most importantly we can live this faith and put in into action that will be pleasing to the Lord, by serving our fellow men, and thus spreading His Gospel, not just by our words, but by our own actions.

Let us also pray that Ut Omnes Unum Sint, God’s great wish, that all of His faithful may be One, will be accomplished, that every Christian, and everyone who believes in Christ, will all return to the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, that is built by God, Christ Himself, on the rock of faith that is Peter. Amen!

 

+Ut Omnes Unum Sint, ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam+
(That they all may be One, for the greater glory of God)

Episcopal Ordination of Coadjutor Archbishop William Goh of Singapore, Part I : The Mass and ceremony itself

What is an Episcopal Ordination? It is the event celebrated with a Mass that mark the continuation of the Apostolic ministry to a new bishop, signified most importantly by the laying of hands by other bishops and the presiding bishop (consecrator), and the imposition of the pontificalia or the vestments and items particular to bishops, which are all representative of his ministry as bishop.

I have written this in conjunction with the Episcopal Ordination of the Coadjutor Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Singapore, Archbishop William Goh Seng Chye, which will be held in the EXPO, Singapore on Friday, 22 February 2013, on the Feast of Chair of St. Peter.

 

Some terms :

Consecrator : the main presiding bishop at the Episcopal Ordination, similar to celebrant in the celebration of the Mass. In the case of Friday’s ordination, it will be the Apostolic Nuncio to Singapore, Archbishop Leopoldo Girelli

Co-consecrators : the assistant bishops at the Episcopal Ordination, similar to concelebrant in the celebration of the Mass. In the case of Friday’s ordination, it will be the Archbishop of Singapore, Archbishop Nicholas Chia, and the Metropolitan Archbishop of Kuala Lumpur, Archbishop Murphy Pakiam.

Other bishops present in the Ordination can also help out with the laying of the hands, following that of the consecrator and co-consecrator’s laying of hands.

 

The ceremony itself will begin as a usual Mass would, beginning with the entrance procession. The new bishop to be ordained usually walks in front of the presiding bishop (consecrator), and usually accompanied by two deacons (just as all bishops should, that means the presiding bishop too when available should also have two deacons to accompany him).

Then begin the Mass as usual with the incensing of the altar, the sign of the Cross, the opening address if there is any, and followed by the Penitential Act (I confess to Almighty God…) and the Kyrie (Lord have mercy). Gloria follows after that. One may ask that this is Lenten season where Gloria is not used, but the day of the ordination for this case, 22 February falls on the Feast of Chair of St. Peter where Gloria is used (as is Te Deum later in the ceremony).

 

After Gloria concludes, then it comes to the opening prayer, and then the readings come as per the usual Mass. First Reading, followed by the Psalm, and finally by the Gospel. No Alleluia for this case since it happens during Lent, and at Lent Alleluia is always omitted, so we have the Lenten Gospel Acclamation instead.

After the Gospel, the Ordination ceremony proper begins.

 

The first part begins with usually the singing of the Hymn of the Holy Spirit (Veni Creator Spiritus), with all the verses used. Then after the Hymn is completed, this is followed by the presentation of the Bishop/Archbishop-elect, that is Coadjutor Archbishop-elect William Goh in this case (He is not yet legally and validly bishop at this point).

The presiding bishop can give a homily following the presentation of the Bishop-elect, usually to explain on the ministry of the bishop and the nature of that ministry.

 

Then the promise/vow of the bishop-elect follows, where the new Bishop solemnly vows before God his promise : (In Latin and English)

1. Latin : Antiqua sanctorum Patrum institutio praecipit, ut, qui Episcopus ordinandus est, coram populo interrogetur de proposito fidei servandae et muneris exsequendi.

Vultis ergo, frater carissimus (fratres carissimi if plural), munus nobis ab Apostolis creditum et vobis per impositionem manuum nostrarum tradendum cum gratia Spiritus Sancti usque ad mortem explere?

English : The ancient rule of the holy Fathers ordains that a Bishop-elect is to be questioned in the presence of the people on his resolve to uphold the faith and to discharge his duty.

And so dear brothers, do you resolve by the grace of the Holy Spirit to discharge until death the office entrusted to us by the Apostles, which we are about to pass on to you by the laying on of our hands?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

2. Latin : Vultis Evangelium Christi fideliter et indesinenter praedicare?

English : Do you resolve to preach the Gospel of Christ with constancy and fidelity?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

3. Latin : Vultis depositum fidei, secundum traditionem inde ab Apostolis in Ecclesia semper et ubique servatam, purum et integrum custodire?

English : Do you resolve to guard the deposit of faith, entire and incorrupt, as handed down by the Apostles and preserved in the Church everywhere and at all times?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

4. Latin : Vultis corpus Christi, Ecclesiam eius, aedificare et eius unitate cum Ordine Episcoporum, sub auctoritate successoris beati Petri Apostoli, permanere?

English : Do you resolve to build up the body of Christ, His Church, and to remain in the unity of that body together with the Order of Bishops under the authority of the successor of Saint Peter the Apostle?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

5. Latin : Vultis beati Petri Apostoli successori, obaedientiam fideliter exhibere?

English : Do you resolve to render obedience faithfully to the succesor of the blessed Apostle Peter?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

6. Latin : Vultis plebem Dei sanctam, cum comministris vestris presbyteris et diaconis, ut pii pater, fovere et in viam salutis dirigere?

English : Do you resolve to guide the holy people of God in the way of salvation as devoted father and sustain them with the help of your fellow ministers, the priests, and deacons?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

7. Latin : Vultis pauperibus et peregrinis omnibusque indigentibus propter nomen Domini affabiles et misericordes vos praebere?

English : Do you resolve, for the sake of the Lord’s Name, to be welcoming and merciful to the poor, to strangers, and to all who are in need?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

8. Latin : Vultis oves errantes ut boni pastores requirere et ovili dominico aggregare?

English : Do you resolve as good shepherds to seek out the sheep who stray and gather them into the Lord’s fold?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

9. Latin : Vultis Deum omnipotentem pro populo sancto indesinenter orare et sine reprehensione summi sacerdotii munus explere?

English : Do you resolve to pray without ceasing to Almighty God for the holy people and to carry out the office of high priest without reproach?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo, Deo auxiliante (English : I do, with the help of God)

 

After this, the Litany of the Saints begins, asking the prayer from all the saints, martyrs, and all holy men of God to pray for the new bishop. The bishop-elect prostrate himself on the floor as a sign of humility before God, during the Litany of the Saints.

 

(R = reply) (Here shown both Latin and English versions)

1. Kyrie, eleison                                        R : Kyrie, eleison

Lord, have mercy                                    R : Lord, have mercy

 

2. Christe, eleison                                    R : Christe, eleison

Christ have mercy                                   R : Christ, have mercy

 

3. Kyrie, eleison                                       R : Kyrie, eleison

Lord have mercy                                     R : Lord, have mercy

 

4. Sancta Maria, Mater Dei                  R : ora pro nobis

Holy Mary, Mother of God                  R : pray for us

 

5. Sancte Michael                                    R : ora pro nobis

Saint Michael                                            R : pray for us

 

6. Sancti Angeli Dei                                 R : orate pro nobis

Holy Angels of God                                 R : pray for us

 

7. Sancte Ioannes Baptista                   R : ora pro nobis

Saint John the Baptist                             R : pray for us

 

8. Sancte Ioseph                                        R : ora pro nobis

Saint Joseph                                                R : pray for us

 

9. Sancte Petre                                            R : ora pro nobis

Saint Peter                                                    R : pray for us

 

10. Sancte Paule                                         R : ora pro nobis

Saint Paul                                                      R : pray for us

 

11. Sancte Andrea                                      R : ora pro nobis

Saint Andrew                                               R : pray for us

 

12. Sancte Iacobe                                       R : ora pro nobis

Saint James                                                   R : pray for us

 

13. Sancte Ioannes                                     R : ora pro nobis

Saint John                                                      R : pray for us

 

14. Sancte Thoma                                        R : ora pro nobis

Saint Thomas                                                 R : pray for us

 

15. Sancte Iacobe                                        R : ora pro nobis

Saint James                                                    R : pray for us

 

16. Sancte Philippe                                      R : ora pro nobis

Saint Philip                                                      R : pray for us

 

17. Sancte Bartholomae                             R : ora pro nobis

Saint Bartholomew                                       R : pray for us

 

18. Sancte Matthae                                       R : ora pro nobis

Saint Matthew                                                 R : pray for us

 

19. Sancte Simon                                            R : ora pro nobis

Saint Simon                                                       R : pray for us

 

20. Sancte Thaddae                                       R : ora pro nobis

Saint Thaddeus                                                R : pray for us

 

21. Sancte Matthia                                         R : ora pro nobis

Saint Matthew                                                  R : pray for us

 

22. Sancta Maria Magdalena                      R : ora pro nobis

Saint Mary Magdalene                                  R : pray for us

 

23. Sancte Stephane                                       R : ora pro nobis

Saint Stephen                                                    R : pray for us

 

24. Sancte Ignati Antiochene                     R : ora pro nobis

Saint Ignatius of Antioch                              R : pray for us

 

25. Sancte Laurenti                                         R : ora pro nobis

Saint Lawrence                                                  R : pray for us

 

26. Sanctae Perpetua et Felicitas               R : orate pro nobis

Saint Perpetua and Saint Felicity               R : pray for us

 

27. Sancta Agnes                                              R : ora pro nobis

Saint Agnes                                                         R : pray for us

 

28. Sancte Georgi                                             R : ora pro nobis

Saint George                                                       R : pray for us

 

29. Sancte Fortunate                                      R : ora pro nobis

Saint Fortunatus                                               R : pray for us

 

30. Sancte Gregori                                           R : ora pro nobis

Saint Gregory                                                     R : pray for us

 

31. Sancte Augustine                                      R : ora pro nobis

Saint Augustine                                                R : pray for us

 

32. Sancte Athanasi                                        R : ora pro nobis

Saint Athanasius                                              R : pray for us

 

33. Sancte Basili                                               R : ora pro nobis

Saint Basil                                                            R : pray for us

 

34, Sancte Martine                                          R : ora pro nobis

Saint Martin                                                       R : pray for us

 

35. Sancte Nicolae                                          R : ora pro nobis

Saint Nicholas                                                   R : pray for us

 

36. Sancte Benedicte                                     R : ora pro nobis

Saint Benedict                                                  R : pray for us

 

37. Sancte Francisce et Dominice            R : orate pro nobis

Saint Francis and Saint Dominic               R : pray for us

 

38. Sancte Francisce Xavier                       R : ora pro nobis

Saint Francis Xavier                                      R : pray for us

 

39. Sancte Vincenti de Paul                        R : ora pro nobis

Saint Vincent de Paul                                    R : pray for us

 

40. Sancte Ioannes Maria Vianney         R : ora pro nobis

Saint John Mary Vianney                            R : pray for us

 

41. Sancta Catharina Senensis                   R : ora pro nobis

Saint Catherine of Siena                               R : pray for us

 

42. Sancta Teresia a Iesu                             R : ora pro nobis

Saint Teresa of Jesus                                     R : pray for us

 

43. Omnes Sancti et Sanctae Dei                   R : orate pro nobis

All holy men and women, Saints of God    R : pray for us

 

44. Propitius esto                                           R : libera nos, Domine

Lord, be merciful                                            R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

45. Ab omni malo                                           R : libera nos, Domine

From all evil                                                     R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

46. Ab omni peccato                                     R : libera nos, Domine

From every sin                                                R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

47. A morte perpetua                                    R : libera nos, Domine

From everlasting death                                R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

48. Per incarnationem tuam                       R : libera nos, Domine

By Your incarnation                                       R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

49. Per mortem et resurrectionem tuam        R :  libera nos, Domine

By Your death and resurrection                        R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

50. Per effusionem Spiritus Sancti             R : libera nos, Domine

By the outpouring of the Holy Spirit         R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

51. Peccatores                                                    R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Be merciful to us sinners                               R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

52. Ut Ecclesiam tuam sanctam regere et conservare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Govern and protect your Holy Church

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

53. Ut domnum apostolicum et omnes ecclesiasticos ordines in sancta religione conservare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Keep the Pope and all the ordained in faithful service to Your Church

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

54. Ut hos electos benedicere digneris              R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Bless these (this) chosen men (man)                   R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

55. Ut hos electos benedicere et santificare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Bless and sanctify these (this) chosen men (man)

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

56. Ut hos electos benedicere et sanctificare et consecrare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Bless, sanctify, and consecrate these (this) chosen men (man)

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

57. Ut cunctis populis pacem et veram concordiam donare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Bring all peoples together in peace and true harmony

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

58. Ut omnis in tribulatione versantibus misericordiam tuam largiri digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Comfort with Your mercy the troubled and the afflicted

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

59. Ut nosmetipsos in tuo sancto servitio confortare et conservare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Strengthen all of us and keep us in Your holy service

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

60. Iesu, Fili Dei vivi                                            R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Jesus, Son of the living God                              R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

61. Christe, audi nos                                            R : Christe, audi nos

Christ, hear us                                                        R : Christ, hear us

 

62. Christe, exaudi nos                                      R : Christe, exaudi nos

Christ, graciously hear us                                R : Christ, graciously hear us

 

(The Litany of the Saints is slightly different and longer than the usual one as this one is used for the Episcopal Ordination Mass proper, which contains more prayers for the bishop-elect)

 

Then the presider will pray this prayer after the Litany :

Latin : Propitiare, Domine, supplicationibus nostris, et inclinato super hos famulos tuos cornu gratiae sacerdotalis, benedictionis tuae in eos effunde virtutem. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

English : Graciously hear our petitions, o Lord, and pour out upon these, Your servants, the power of Your blessing, flowing from the horn of priestly grace. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

 

The imposition or laying of hands then follow. Beginning with the consecrator and the co-consecrators, they lay their hands on the bishop-elect’s head, as a sign of the passing down of the Holy Spirit they themselves have received through the Apostolic Succession, from the Apostles, and therefore from Christ.

(During this time, the other bishops in attendance may also lay their hands on the head of the new Bishop as a symbol of the continuing power that came from the Apostles, the unbroken Apostolic Succession from the Apostles themselves, empowering the new Bishop with the same authority and power God has given to the Apostles).

 

Then this is followed by the placing of the Holy Scripture opened up above the head of the new Bishop, as a symbol that the new Bishop will stay true to the Word of God in the Scripture, and will do his best to carry out the will of God, and make the Word of God centre of his life and his mission as the Bishop, as the shepherd of God’s people.

The moment and words that made an Episcopal Ordination valid and legal (when done by the proper authority and in accordance with the Canon Law) are highlighted in bold below. The Principal consecrator then pray together with the co-consecrators and the other bishops over the new Bishop (with the Sacred Scripture above his head).

 

Latin : Deus et Pater Domini nostri Iesu Christi, Pater misericordiarum et Deus totius consolationis, qui in excelsis habeas et humilia respicis, qui cognoscis omnia antequam nascantur, tu qui dedisti in Ecclesia tua normas per verbum gratiae tuae, qui praedestinasti ex principio genus iustorum ab Abraham, qui constituisti principes et sacerdotes, et sanctuarium tuum sine ministerio non dereliquisti, cui ab initio mundi placuit in his quos eligisti glorificari :

Et nunc effunde super hos electos eam virtutem, quae a te est, Spiritum principalem, quem dedisti dilecto Filio tuo Iesu Christo, quem ipse donavit sanctis Apostolis, qui constituerunt Ecclesiam per singula loca ut sanctuarium tuum, in gloriam et laudem indeficientem nominis tui.

Da, cordium cognitor Pater, his servis tuis, quos elegisti ad Episcopatum, ut pascant gregem sanctum tuum, et suum sacerdotium tibi exhibeant sine reprehensione, servientes tibi nocte et die, ut incessanter vultum tuum propitium reddant et offerant dona sanctae Ecclesiae tuae; da ut virtute Spiritus summi sacerdotii habeant potestatem dimittendi peccata secundum mandatum tuum; ut distribuant munera secundum praeceptum tuum et solvant omne vinculum secundum potestatem quam dedisti Apostolis; placeant tibi in mansuetudine et mundo corde, offerentes tibi odorem suavitatis, per Filium tuum Iesum Christum, per quem tibi gloria et potentia et honor, cum Spiritu Sancto in sancta Ecclesia et nunc et in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

 

English : God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Father of mercies and God of all consolation, who dwell on high and look on the lowly, who know all things before they come to be; and who laid down observances in Your Church through the word of Your grace; who from the beginning, foreordained a nation of the just, born of Abraham; who established rulers and priests and did not leave Your sanctuary without ministers, and who, from the foundation of the world, were pleased to be glorified in those You have chosen :

Pour out now upon these (this) chosen ones (one) that power which is from You, the Spirit of governance whom You gave to Your beloved Son, Jesus Christ, the Spirit whom He bestowed upon the holy Apostles, who established the Church in each place as Your sanctuary for the glory and unceasing praise of Your Name.

Grant, o Father, knower of all hearts, that these (this), Your servant(s), whom You have chosen for the office of Bishop may shepherd Your holy flock, Serving You night and day, may they fulfill before You without reproach the ministry of the High Priesthood; so that, always gaining Your favour, they (he) may offer up the gifts of Your Holy Church. Grant that, by the power of the Spirit of the High Priesthood, they may have the power to forgive sins according to Your command, assign offices according to Your decree, and loose every bond according to the power given by You to the Apostles. May they please You by their meekness and purity of heart, presenting a fragrant offering in You, through Your Son, Jesus Christ, through whom glory and power and honor are Yours with the Holy Spirit in the Holy Church, now and forever. Amen.

 

After this, the consecrator bishop will anoint the hands of the new Bishop with the sacred chrism oil, signifying that the bishop is the anointed one of God, given by God the authority of the High Priesthood of Christ, which he share.

Latin : Deus, qui summi Christi sacerdotii participem te effecit, ipse te mysticae delibutionis liquore perfundat, et spiritualis benedictionis ubertate fecundet.

English : May God, who has made you a sharer in the High Priesthood of Christ, Himself pour out upon you the oil of mystical anointing and make you fruitful with an abundance of spiritual blessings.

 

Then, the new Bishop receives the Book of the Gospels (Evangelium), the Word of God, to remind him of his duty to teach and preach the word of God to his flock.

Latin : Accipe Evangelium et verbum Dei praedica in omni patientia et doctrina.

English : Receive the Gospel and preach the word of God with all patience and sound teaching.

 

Then, the new Bishop receives the Episcopal ring, the sign that he is married to God and His Holy Church, and thus the flock he is entrusted to.

Latin : Accipe anulum, fidei signaculum : et sponsam Dei, sanctam Ecclesiam, intemerata fide orantus, illibate custodi.

English : Receive this ring, the seal of fidelity : adorned with undefiled faith, preserve unblemished the bride of God, the holy Church.

 

Then, the new Bishop receives the mitre, the symbol of authority, that he now teach as the teacher of faith in the authority given to Him by Christ, and as a crown of glory and holiness given to him by Christ.

Latin : Accipe mitram, et clarescat in te splendor sanctitatis, ut cum apparuerit princeps pastorum, immarcescibilem gloriae coronam percipere merearis.

English : Receive the mitre, and may the splendour of holiness shine forth in you, so that when the Chief Shepherd appears you may deserve to receive from Him an unfading crown of glory.

 

Finally, the new Bishop receives the pastoral crosier, which is a symbol of his pastoral office as a shepherd to God’s people, the sheep entrusted to him to care, and to govern through the authority given to him by the Holy Spirit.

Latin : Accipe baculum, pastoralis muneris signum, et attende universo gregi, in quo te Spiritus Sanctus posuit Episcopum regere Ecclesiam Dei.

English : Receive the crosier, the sign of your pastoral office, and keep watch over the whole flock in which the Holy Spirit has placed you as Bishop to govern the Church of God.

 

After all are done, the new Bishop is presented to the people and all the faithful. An appropriate hymn, or hymn in honour of the new Bishop may be sung or played at this time. Then the Mass proceeds as normal with the Creed.

 

The Mass and the Eucharist, and then the Communion proceed as it is in a normal Mass. Then, after the concluding prayer (Prayer after Communion) is said, Te Deum is usually sung. Te Deum as the hymn that glorifies God and usually sang at events including ordinations, and show that through the ordination of this new bishop, God’s glory is made manifest in this world.

 

Te Deum

 

Te Deum laudamus, te Dominum confitemur

We praise You, o God, we acclaim You as the Lord.

 

Te aeternum Patrem, omnis terra veneratur.

Everlasting Father, all the world bows down before You.

 

Tibi omnes angeli, tibi caeli et universae potestatis;

All the angels sing Your praise, the hosts of heaven and all the angelic powers;

 

tibi cherubim et seraphim incessabili voce proclamant :

all the cherubim and seraphim call out to You in unending song :

 

Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth.

Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord of God of the angelic hosts.

 

Pleni sunt caeli et terra, maiestatis gloriae tuae.

The heavens and the earth are filled with Your majesty and glory.

 

Te gloriosus Apostolorum chorus,

The glorious band of apostles,

 

te prophetarum laudabilis numerus,

the noble company of prophets,

 

te martyrum candidatus laudat exercitus.

the marytrs who shed their blood for Christ, all sing Your praise.

 

Te per orbem terrarum sancta confitetur Ecclesia,

And to the ends of the earth, Your Holy Church proclaims her faith in You,

 

Patrem immensae maiestatis;

Father, whose majesty is boundless;

 

venerandum  tuum verum et unicum Filium;

Your true and only Son, who is to be adored;

 

Sanctum quoque Paraclitum Spiritum.

the Holy Spirit sent to be our Advocate.

 

Tu rex gloriae, Christe.

You, Christ, are the King of glory.

 

Tu Patris sempiternus es Filius.

Son of the Eternal Father.

 

Tu, ad liberandum suscepturus hominem, non horruisti Virginis uterum.

When You took our nature to save mankind, You did not shrink from birth in the Virgin’s womb.

 

Tu, devicto mortis aculeo, aperuisti credentibus regna caelorum.

You overcame the power of death, opening the Father’s kingdom to all who believe in You.

 

Tu ad dexteram Dei sedes, in gloria Patris.

Enthroned at God’s right hand, in the glory of the Father.

 

Iudex crederis esse venturus.

You will come in judgement according to Your promise.

 

Te ergo quaesumus, tuis famulis subveni, quos pretioso sanguine redemisti.

You redeemed Your people by Your Precious Blood. Come, we implore You, to our aid.

 

Aeterna fac cum sanctis tuis in gloria numerari.

Grant us with the saints, a place in eternal glory.

 

Then the Mass ends with the final blessing and dismissal. Thus ends the Episcopal Ordination Mass. The guide above is not conclusive, as there may be variations in the wording and the hymn depending on the local needs and customs.

 

Let us pray for the Coadjutor Archbishop of Singapore, Msgr. William Goh, that God will truly pour down on him, the Holy Spirit, that he will be a great shepherd to His people, in His Church in Singapore. Amen.

1 month since the beginning of my blog. May God always be with me and my hands!

16 January 2013, a month ago, I have decided to begin this blog, which begun officially on 17 January 2013, the next day.

A month has passed since then, and every time, I always feel the Lord’s guiding my hands to continue writing both on the Scripture, the daily reflections, and the other matters regarding the faith, more so now that a new Coadjutor Archbishop of Singapore will be ordained soon within this week (on Friday, 22 February 2013), and that our beloved Pope Benedict XVI will step down at the end of this month, and his successor to be elected in a month’s time.

Pray for me, pray for the Coadjutor Archbishop of Singapore, Msgr. William Goh, pray for our Pope Benedict XVI, for his successor-to-be, and pray for the Universal Church and for the world. May God be with us all, always, and may His blessing be upon us. Amen.

 

Statistics of my blog (1 month)

Total Visitors : 1,192

Total Views : 1,801

 

View statistics by country (Total observed = 1,767)

1. United States of America = 717

2. Singapore = 405

3. United Kingdom = 115

4. Philippines = 107

5. Canada = 82

6. Malaysia = 47

7. Italy = 33

8. Australia = 28

9. France = 21

10. Ireland = 20

11. India = 17

12. Indonesia = 14

13. Poland = 10

14. Germany = 9

15. Switzerland = 7

16. Trinidad and Tobago = 7

17. Belgium = 6

18. Republic of Korea (South Korea) = 6

19. Mexico = 6

20. Brazil = 5

21. Hong Kong = 5

22. Nigeria = 5

23. Spain = 5

24. Czech Republic = 5

25. New Zealand = 5

26. Croatia = 5

27. Bolivia = 4

28. Chile = 4

29. Hungary = 4

30. Kenya = 4

31. Argentina = 3

32. Sri Lanka = 3

33. Brunei Darussalam = 3

34. Malta = 3

35. Thailand = 3

36. South Africa = 2

37. Sweden = 2

38. Zimbabwe = 2

39. Vietnam = 2

40. Greece = 2

41. Namibia = 2

42. Colombia = 2

43. Japan = 2

44. Austria = 2

45. Portugal = 2

46. Laos = 2

47. Venezuela = 2

48. Puerto Rico = 2

49. Turkey = 1

50. Honduras = 1

51. United Arab Emirates = 1

52. Russian Federation = 1

53. Lithuania = 1

54. Timor-Leste = 1

55. Qatar = 1

56. Ghana = 1

57. Bangladesh = 1

58. Romania = 1

59. Pakistan = 1

60. Luxembourg = 1

61. Uganda = 1

62. Slovakia = 1

63. Oman = 1

64. Denmark = 1

65. Macau = 1

66. Saudi Arabia = 1

+Ut Omnes Unum Sint, ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam+

(That they all may be One, for the greater glory of God)

Papabili for the 2013 Papal Conclave (List) : My summary and opinions

Cardinal Angelo Scola : My favourite to be the next Pope. The leading Italian candidate, Archbishop of Milan, and former Patriarch of Venice. He is also a spiritual and intellectual disciple of our beloved Pope Benedict XVI, with similar views on the liturgy. Best person to continue the work that has been started by Pope Benedict XVI on ‘reform of the reform’ and other issues of the faith and the Church.

View his videos, homilies, activities, and Masses at his site : http://angeloscola.it/ and the Youtube page of Archdiocese of Milan at : http://www.youtube.com/user/itleditore

Cardinal Marc Ouellet : Canadian, Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, former Primate of Canada and Metropolitan Archbishop Emeritus of Quebec. My second favourite and alternative to Cardinal Scola to be the next Bishop of Rome, and also widely regarded as the top non-Italian and non-European candidate. He is also close to our Pope Benedict XVI in his views and intellectually as well, though may be not as close as Cardinal Scola is. He has done a great job at the Congregation, and has seen the appointment of bishops who are not just good administrators, but also good in intellect and faith as well.

Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi : Italian, President of the Pontifical Council for Culture, well-known for his activity in engaging the media and the new media, particularly through the Internet, via Twitter and other social media in the approach for new evangelisation, and also has done great works among the youth, who are the Church’s future. May have chance if Cardinal Scola’s candidacy does not make it. Drawback is that he has less experience, being only less than 3 years as a Cardinal and about 6 years as a bishop, with little experience outside the Pontifical Council for Culture.

Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone : Italian, Cardinal Secretary of State. The prime Cardinal in the Roman Curia, the second hand of the Pope. He is seen as a strong leader, but many has seen that he is a rather dominating persona, which may be incompatible with the office of the Papacy, and he is also rather too old at 78 going 79 at the end of this year. As Pope Benedict XVI was elected just on his 78th birthday, just like Cardinal Arinze, who is already above 80, the chance of the College of Cardinals to elect someone too old is getting more remote, especially considering the reason for Pope Benedict XVI’s decision to retire and renounce the position as the Bishop of Rome.

Cardinal Timothy Dolan : American, Metropolitan Archbishop of New York. Jovial and lively, reminds me much of Blessed Pope John XXIII. Conservative in issues and outlook. However, being a Cardinal from the world’s only superpower and also the troubles in the American church makes his chances rather slim. However, his youth, his charisma, and his position as the President of the US Catholic Bishops’ Conference may boost his chances to be elected.

Cardinal Raymond Burke : American, Prefect of Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signatura (or the Supreme/Chief Justice of the Holy See). Relatively young and traditional, worn the traditional Cardinal dress (galero and cappa magna) and one of the more-traditionally minded Cardinal in the College. Often celebrated the Mass in the Extraordinary Form. May be a good choice for those looking for a more traditional candidate as the next Pope, to continue the ‘reform of the reform’ of Pope Benedict XVI.

Cardinal Christoph Schonborn : Austrian. Metropolitan Archbishop of Vienna. Long seen as the contender for the Papacy, even since the 2005 election. Still rather young at 68 (even younger during the 2005 conclave). However, he is a controversial figure, often recorded with the liturgical abuses (he himself may not mean so, as his funeral Mass for the late Archduke Otto of Austria was done very reverently and liturgically correct), such as the youth Mass with rock concert/party style-Mass and not-so-traditional types of worship, and then with a German currently as the Bishop of Rome, it is less likely that the Cardinals will elect another German as Pope, even though he came from neighbouring Austria.

Cardinal Francis Arinze : Nigerian, Former Prefect of the Congregation for the Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. Often touted recently in the media with Cardinal Peter Turkson, another African (Ghana), due to the intense media bias on the possibility of having an African Pope in this Conclave. Not to be biased, but what the media often reported is not what is the actual happening on the ground. Main problem is, according to Universi Dominici Gregis, although it specifically state that he cannot vote as elector because he is already above 80 of age, he may still be elected, but considering that Pope Benedict XVI has resigned at the age of 85 going 86, the Cardinals will likely want to elect someone in their early 70s like Cardinal Scola or late 60s like Cardinal Ouellet.

Cardinal Peter Turkson : Ghana (Africa), President of Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace. Seen by many as a strong contender, but with main issues regarding his frequent gaffes and improper comments regarding Muslim-Christian relations, which is a very important and delicate matter in the Church indeed. He was also censured somewhat for his screening of a clip that showed the rise of Islam in Europe last year, which quite a few Cardinals saw as fearmongering. In addition, his name, Peter, may bring about intense speculation on Petrus Romanus (Peter the Roman) in the Prophecy of St. Malachy on the Popes. Petrus Romanus, being the last Pope, will come at the time near the end of time, heading the Church in the time of persecution (as perhaps told in the Book of Revelations). As this last prophecy is not numbered, it is most likely that St. Malachy purposely did so / the vision given by the Lord purposely did so such that we know what’s going to happen, but not the exact time when the Lord will come again, so that we will always be ready for His coming. So, no, most likely we won’t have a Peter or Pope Peter in this time round. (Addition : Cardinal Turkson has also openly announced that he is ready to be elected if he is. Normally this is frowned, as this is seen as ambition, and incompatible with the will of the Holy Spirit. Remember that the papal conclave is not the same as the US presidential elections or any other secular elections, it is far above that).

Cardinal Luis Antonio Gokim Tagle : Filipino (Asia), Metropolitan Archbishop of Manila. A young and new Cardinal appointed by the Pope at his last consistory last November. This may be seen by some as the Pope appointing his ‘successor’ but it is actually not so. I myself hope that he will be elected Pope, but not this time, maybe after the next one, and he can have the chance to be the 268th Pope instead (we are electing the 267th Bishop of Rome in this conclave). First is his very young age, and his relative lack of experience in both as a Cardinal and the Archbishop of Manila. I have very high opinions on Cardinal Tagle and was very glad when he was named a Cardinal last year, but to me, let Cardinal Tagle do great works first in Manila for many more years, and then, with all those experiences, then he can become an even better Pope next time.

This list is still incomplete, and I will post additions from time to time. In any case, it is not man to decide who’s the next leader of the Universal Church, the Vicar of Christ. It is Christ Himself, through the Holy Spirit, and thus through the Cardinal-electors inspired by the Spirit who decides. Pray for them, and for the entire Universal Church, and for the whole world. Amen.

The Papacy, St. Peter the Apostle, and Christ : the unbreakable chain

‎”No chain is stronger than its weakest link, and the weakest link of the chain of Popes was the first (Peter). But that weak link was held in the hands of Christ. That is why the papacy will never fail.” – Venerable Fulton Sheen

Christ Himself have the Church firmly in His hands, and He will not let go. He is faithful to us just as we are faithful to Him. The Church He has built and the authority He has given to Peter to feed His sheep, will never fail.

A vision that I have for the future College of Cardinals : For Greater Representation and Universality of the Church

This is still updating in the view of more data and research

Curial Cardinals

1. Cardinal Secretary of State

2. Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

3. Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches

4. Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments

5. Prefect of the Congregation for Causes of Saints

6. Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops

7. Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples

8. Prefect of the Congregation for Clergy

9. Prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and for Societies of Apostolic Life

10. Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education (for Seminaries and Educational Institutions)

11. Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary

12. President of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura

13. President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity

14. President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity

15. President of the Pontifical Council for the Family

16. President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace

17. President of the Pontifical Council ‘Cor Unum’

18. President of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People

19. President of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers

20. President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts

21. President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue

22. President of the Pontifical Council for Culture

23. President of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications

24. President of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelisation

25. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See

26. President of the Prefecture of the Economic Affairs of the Holy See

27. President of the Governatorate of the Vatican City State

28. Archpriest of the Basilica of St. John Lateran

29. Archpriest of the Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican

30. Archpriest of the Basilica of St. Mary Major

31. Archpriest of the Basilica of St. Paul Outside-the-Walls

32. President of the Financial Information Authority of the Holy See

 

Non-curial cardinals (Residential)

Europe (Sees tied to the Cardinalate)

33. Metropolitan Archbishop of Vienna (Austria)

34. Metropolitan Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussel (Belgium)

35. Metropolitan Archbishop of Zagreb (Croatia)

36. Metropolitan Archbishop of Praha/Prague (Czech Republic)

37. Metropolitan Archbishop of Paris (France)

38. Metropolitan Archbishop of Bordeaux (France)

39. Metropolitan Archbishop of Lyon (France)

40. Metropolitan Archbishop of Rheims (France)

41. Metropolitan Archbishop of Tours (France)

42. Metropolitan Archbishop of Berlin (Germany)

43. Metropolitan Archbishop of Munchen und Freising (Germany)

44. Metropolitan Archbishop of Koln (Germany)

45. Metropolitan Archbishop of Paderborn (Germany)

46. Metropolitan Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest (Hungary)

47. Metropolitan Archbishop of Armagh (Ireland)

48. Metropolitan Archbishop of Dublin (Ireland)

49. Metropolitan Archbishop of Firenze (Italy)

50. Metropolitan Archbishop of Palermo (Italy)

51. Metropolitan Archbishop of Genova (Italy)

52. Metropolitan Archbishop of Bologna (Italy)

53. Metropolitan Archbishop of Milano (Italy)

54. Metropolitan Archbishop of Torino (Italy)

55. Metropolitan Archbishop of Napoli (Italy)

56. Latin Patriarch of Venice (Italy)

57. Metropolitan Archbishop of Vilnius (Lithuania)

58. Metropolitan Archbishop of Utrecht (Netherlands)

59. Metropolitan Archbishop of Warszawa (Poland)

60. Metropolitan Archbishop of Krakow (Poland)

61. Metropolitan Archbishop of Wroclaw (Poland)

62. Metropolitan Archbishop of Gniezno (Poland)

63. Latin Patriarch of Lisboa/Lisbon (Portugal)

64. Metropolitan Archbishop of Bratislava (Slovakia)

65. Metropolitan Archbishop of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

66. Metropolitan Archbishop of Barcelona (Spain)

67. Metropolitan Archbishop of Sevilla (Spain)

68. Metropolitan Archbishop of Toledo (Spain)

69. Metropolitan Archbishop of Madrid (Spain)

70. Metropolitan Archbishop of Valencia (Spain)

71. Metropolitan Archbishop of Westminster (UK)

72. Metropolitan Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh (UK)

Asia  (Sees tied to the Cardinalate)

73. Bishop of Hong Kong (China)

74. Metropolitan Archbishop of Bombay (India)

75. Metropolitan Archbishop of Calcutta (India)

76. Metropolitan Archbishop of Delhi (India)

77. Latin Patriarch of the East Indies, Metropolitan Archbishop of Goa and Daman (India)

78. Metropolitan Archbishop of Ranchi (India)

79. Metropolitan Archbishop of Jakarta (Indonesia)

80. Metropolitan Archbishop of Semarang (Indonesia)

81. Metropolitan Archbishop of Ende (Indonesia)

82. Metropolitan Archbishop of Tokyo / Metropolitan Archbishop of Nagasaki (Japan)

83. Metropolitan Archbishop of Yangon / Metropolitan Archbishop of Mandalay (Myanmar)

84. Metropolitan Archbishop of Lahore (Pakistan)

85. Metropolitan Archbishop of Manila (Philippines)

86. Metropolitan Archbishop of Cebu (Philippines)

87. Metropolitan Archbishop of Davao (Philippines)

88. Metropolitan Archbishop of Lipa (Philippines)

89. Metropolitan Archbishop of Jaro (Philippines)

90. Metropolitan Archbishop of Lingayen-Dagupan (Philippines)

91. Metropolitan Archbishop of Kuala Lumpur /Archbishop of Singapore / Metropolitan Archbishop of Kuching / Metropolitan Archbishop of Kota Kinabalu (Singapore and Malaysia)

92. Metropolitan Archbishop of Seoul (South Korea)

93. Metropolitan Archbishop of Daegu (South Korea)

94. Metropolitan Archbishop of Colombo (Sri Lanka)

95. Metropolitan Archbishop of Taipei (Taiwan/ROC)

96. Metropolitan Archbishop of Bangkok (Thailand)

97. Bishop of Dili (Timor-Leste)

98. Metropolitan Archbishop of Ha Noi (Vietnam)

99. Metropolitan Archbishop of Thanh-Pho Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam)

100. Metropolitan Archbishop of Hue (Vietnam)

North America (Sees tied to Cardinalate)

101. Metropolitan Archbishop of Toronto (Canada)

102. Metropolitan Archbishop of Montreal (Canada)

103. Metropolitan Archbishop of Quebec (Canada)

104. Metropolitan Archbishop of Guadalajara (Mexico)

105. Metropolitan Archbishop of Mexico (Mexico)

106. Metropolitan Archbishop of Monterrey (Mexico)

107. Metropolitan Archbishop of Leon (Mexico)

108. Metropolitan Archbishop of Acapulco (Mexico)

109. Metropolitan Archbishop of Tijuana (Mexico)

110. Metropolitan Archbishop of New York (USA)

111. Metropolitan Archbishop of Baltimore (USA)

112. Metropolitan Archbishop of St. Louis (USA)

113. Metropolitan Archbishop of Washington (USA)

114. Metropolitan Archbishop of Boston (USA)

115. Metropolitan Archbishop of Los Angeles (USA)

116. Metropolitan Archbishop of San Francisco (USA)

117. Metropolitan Archbishop of Philadelphia (USA)

118. Metropolitan Archbishop of Chicago (USA)

119. Metropolitan Archbishop of Denver (USA)

120. Metropolitan Archbishop of Detroit (USA)

Central America (Sees tied to Cardinalate)

121. Metropolitan Archbishop of La Habana / Havana (Cuba)

122. Metropolitan Archbishop of Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)

123. Metropolitan Archbishop of San Salvador (El Salvador)

124. Metropolitan Archbishop of Guatemala (Guatemala)

125. Metropolitan Archbishop of Tegucigalpa (Honduras)

126. Metropolitan Archbishop of Managua (Nicaragua)

127. Metropolitan Archbishop of San Juan de Puerto Rico (USA/Puerto Rico)

South America (Sees tied to the Cardinalate)

128. Metropolitan Archbishop of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

129. Metropolitan Archbishop of Parana (Argentina)

130. Metropolitan Archbishop of Cordoba (Argentina)

131. Metropolitan Archbishop of La Plata (Argentina)

132. Metropolitan Archbishop of Santa Cruz  de la Sierra (Bolivia)

133. Metropolitan Archbishop of Sucre (Bolivia)

134. Metropolitan Archbishop of Aparecida (Brazil)

135. Metropolitan Archbishop of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

136. Metropolitan Archbishop of Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

137. Metropolitan Archbishop of Sao Salvador da Bahia (Brazil)

138. Metropolitan Archbishop of Brasilia (Brazil)

139. Metropolitan Archbishop of Porto Alegre (Brazil)

140. Metropolitan Archbishop of Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

141. Metropolitan Archbishop of Florianopolis (Brazil)

142. Metropolitan Archbishop of Manaus (Brazil)

143. Metropolitan Archbishop of Cuiaba (Brazil)

144. Metropolitan Archbishop of Santiago (Chile)

145. Metropolitan Archbishop of Concepcion (Chile)

146. Metropolitan Archbishop of Bogota (Colombia)

147. Metropolitan Archbishop of Bucaramanga (Colombia)

148. Metropolitan Archbishop of Quito (Ecuador)

149. Metropolitan Archbishop of Asuncion (Paraguay)

150. Metropolitan Archbishop of Lima (Peru)

151. Metropolitan Archbishop of Trujillo (Peru)

152. Metropolitan Archbishop of Montevideo (Uruguay)

153. Metropolitan Archbishop of Caracas (Venezuela)

154. Metropolitan Archbishop of Barquisimeto / Metropolitan Archbishop of Maracaibo / Metropolitan Archbishop of Merida / Metropolitan Archbishop of Valencia (Venezuela)

Africa (Sees tied to Cardinalate)

155. Metropolitan Archbishop of Luanda (Angola)

156. Metropolitan Archbishop of Cotonou (Benin)

157. Metropolitan Archbishop of Ougadougou (Burkina Faso)

158. Metropolitan Archbishop of Douala (Cameroon)

159. Metropolitan Archbishop of Bangui (Central African Republic)

160. Metropolitan Archbishop of Brazzaville (Congo)

161. Metropolitan Archbishop of Kinshasa (Zaire)

162. Metropolitan Archbishop of Abidjan (Cote d’Ivoire)

163. Metropolitan Archbishop of Addis Abeba (Ethiopia) (Ethiopic Rite)

164. Metropolitan Archbishop of Cape Coast (Ghana)

165. Metropolitan Archbishop of Tamale (Ghana)

166. Metropolitan Archbishop of Conakry (Guinea)

167. Metropolitan Archbishop of Nairobi (Kenya)

168. Metropolitan Archbishop of Antananarivo (Madagascar)

169. Bishop of Port-Louis (Mauritius)

170. Metropolitan Archbishop of Maputo (Mozambique)

171. Metropolitan Archbishop of Abuja (Nigeria)

172. Metropolitan Archbishop of Lagos (Nigeria)

173. Metropolitan Archbishop of Onitsha (Nigeria)

174. Metropolitan Archbishop of Kaduna (Nigeria)

175. Metropolitan Archbishop of Kigali (Rwanda)

176. Metropolitan Archbishop of Dakar (Senegal)

177. Metropolitan Archbishop of Cape Town (South Africa)

178. Metropolitan Archbishop of Durban (South Africa)

179. Metropolitan Archbishop of Juba (South Sudan)

180. Metropolitan Archbishop of Khartoum (Sudan)

181. Metropolitan Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania)

182. Metropolitan Archbishop of Kampala (Uganda)

183. Metropolitan Archbishop of Lusaka (Zambia)

184. Metropolitan Archbishop of Harare (Zimbabwe)

Oceania (Sees tied to Cardinalate)

185. Metropolitan Archbishop of Samoa-Apia (Samoa)

186. Metropolitan Archbishop of Sydney (Australia)

187. Metropolitan Archbishop of Melbourne / Metropolitan Archbishop of Perth / Metropolitan Archbishop of Brisbane (Australia)

188. Metropolitan Archbishop of Wellington (New Zealand)

189. Metropolitan Archbishop of Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea)

Eastern Rite Patriarchs and Major Archbishops

190. Patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts (Egypt)

191. Patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites (Lebanon)

192. Patriarch of Antioch of the Syrians (Syria)

193. Patriarch of the Greek-Melkites

194. Catholicos of Cilicia of the Armenians

195. Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans (Iraq)

196. Major Archbishop of Fagaras si Alba Iulia of the Romanians (Romania)

197. Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro-Malabars (India)

198. Major Archbishop of Trivandrum of the Syro-Malankars (India)

199. Major Archbishop of Kyiv-Halyc of the Ukrainians (Ukraine)

Total Sees tied to Cardinalate + Curial Cardinals = 199

Sees tied to Cardinalate (require resolution of problems regarding the Church in the area)

1. Metropolitan Archbishop of Beijing (China)

2. Metropolitan Archbishop of Nanjing (China)

3. Metropolitan Archbishop of Guangzhou (China)

4. Metropolitan Archbishop of Xi’an (China)

5. Metropolitan Archbishop of Changsha (China)

6. Metropolitan Archbishop of Pyongyang (North Korea)

Grand Total = 205 Cardinal electors minimal (Not counting irregular appointed non-bishop Cardinals, namely Cardinals appointed from priests, theologians, and distinguished members of the Church’s ordained presbyters)

Division by continents (minimum, as more Cardinals from dioceses/archdioceses not listed above can be created)

Europe = 42

Asia = 41

North America = 20

Central America = 7                        America total = 54

South America = 27

Africa = 31

Oceania = 5

Curial = 32 (can be from any continents, although majority will be Italians and Europeans)

(Total College size will be larger <= 350 if counting the Emeritus Archbishops of these Metropolitan Archdioceses and the Roman Curial posts’ Emeritus Cardinals above the age of 80 or non-electors).