New Cardinals and their assigned Churches in Rome, Consistory of 22 February 2014

On the Feast of the Chair of St. Peter, on Saturday, 22 February 2014, the Vicar of Christ and Bishop of Rome, Leader of the Universal Church, Pope Francis elevates 19 new Cardinals to the Cardinalate by the bestowal of the red biretta, 15 of which are of the order of priests (Cardinal Priests) and 4 of which are of the order of deacons (Cardinal Deacons).

3 of the new Cardinals are non-electors, being above the age of 80, appointed purely as honorary Cardinals for their service to the Church, and the other 16 Cardinals are voting-age Cardinals (below 80), and will be eligible to vote for the next Pope in the next Conclave until they reach the age of 80.

The College of Cardinals now stands at 218 members, with 122 Cardinal-electors and 96 Cardinal non-electors as of 22 February 2014.

In total, 2 new Cardinal churches in Rome are created, 1 for Cardinal Titular church and 1 for Cardinal deaconry.There are as of now, 0 vacant Cardinal Title, and 6 vacant Cardinal Deaconries.

 

Cardinal Deaconries :

1. Pietro Cardinal Parolin, Cardinal Secretary of State

Cardinal Deaconry of Ss. Simone e Giuda Taddeo e Torre Angela (New Deaconry)

 

2. Lorenzo Cardinal Baldisseri, Secretary of the Synod of Bishops and College of Cardinals

Cardinal Deaconry of S. Anselmo all’Aventino

 

3. Gerhard Ludwig Cardinal Muller, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

Cardinal Deaconry of S. Agnese in Agone

 

4. Beniamino Cardinal Stella, Prefect of the Congregation for Clergy

Cardinal Deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano

 

Cardinal Titles :

1. Vincent Gerard Cardinal Nichols, Metropolitan Archbishop of Westminster (UK)

Cardinal Title of Ss. Redentore e S. Alfonso in Via Merulana

 

2. Leopoldo Jose Cardinal Brenes Solorzano, Metropolitan Archbishop of Managua (Nicaragua)

Cardinal Title of S. Gioacchino ai Prati di Castello

 

3. Gerald Cyprien Cardinal Lacroix, Metropolitan Archbishop of Quebec (Canada)

Cardinal Title of Giuseppe all’Aurelio

 

4. Jean-Pierre Cardinal Kutwa, Metropolitan Archbishop of Abidjan (Ivory Coast/Cote d’Ivoire)

Cardinal Title of S. Emerenziana a Tor Fiorenza

 

5. Orani Joao Cardinal Tempesta, Metropolitan Archbishop of Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

Cardinal Title of S. Maria Madre della Provvidenza e Monte Verde

 

6. Gualtiero Cardinal Bassetti, Metropolitan Archbishop of Perugia-Citta della Pieve (Italy)

Cardinal Title of S. Cecilia

 

7. Mario Aurelio Cardinal Poli, Metropolitan Archbishop of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

Cardinal Title of S. Roberto Bellarmino

 

8. Andrew Cardinal Yeom Soo-jung, Metropolitan Archbishop of Seoul (South Korea)

Cardinal Title of S. Crisogono

 

9. Ricardo Cardinal Ezzati Andrello, Metropolitan Archbishop of Santiago (Chile)

Cardinal Title of Ss. Redentore a Valmelaina

 

10. Philippe Nakellentuba Cardinal Ouedraogo, Metropolitan Archbishop of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

Cardinal Title of S. Marie Consolatrice al Tiburtino

 

11. Orlando Beltran Cardinal Quevedo, Metropolitan Archbishop of Cotabato (Philippines)

Cardinal Title of S. Maria ‘Regina Mundi’ a Torre Spaccata

 

12. Chibly Cardinal Langlois, Bishop of Les Cayes (Haiti)

Cardinal Title of S. Giacomo in Augusta (New Title)

 

13. Loris Francesco Cardinal Capovilla, Titular Archbishop of Mesembria, Personal Secretary to Blessed Pope John XXIII

Cardinal Title of S. Maria in Trastevere

 

14. Fernando Cardinal Sebastian Aguilar,  Metropolitan Archbishop Emeritus of Pamplona y Tudela (Spain)

Cardinal Title of S. Angela Merici

 

15. Kelvin Cardinal Edward Felix,  Metropolitan Archbishop Emeritus of Castries (Saint Lucia)

Cardinal Title of S. Maria della Salute a Primavalle

Episcopal Ordination of Coadjutor Archbishop William Goh of Singapore, Part II : The office of Bishop, what they wear, and their significance

Continuing from the first part, in which I elaborated on the Episcopal Ordination ceremony itself, let us now take a look at the office of the Episcopate itself, that is of a bishop. One may ask, who is a bishop? Bishops are ‘overseers’, which came from the Greek word, Episkopos, which means overseers, as in the early Church, there are those appointed to succeed the Apostles and oversee the Christian communities, to care for them like shepherds care for their flocks of sheep.

Such was the origin of the episcopate, with bishops as those appointed in positions of authority and with oversight over the laity and the religious alike, to keep them faithful to God, and united to the successor of the blessed Apostle Peter, who is our Pope.

 

 

This development of the early Church eventually become an office on its own, a separate level from the priesthood, as in the episcopate, there is a fulfillment and completion of the holy orders, which is symbolised by the bishop wearing both the deacon’s dalmatic, and the priest’s chasuble over the dalmatic. This symbolises the union of the ministry of the diaconate and the priesthood in the person of the bishop, who represents the completion of holy orders.

Cardinals and Popes are not separate orders on their own, unlike the diaconate, priesthood, and the episcopate, as these are just different types of bishops, with Cardinals usually being bishops from important dioceses/archdioceses in the world, and the officials of the Roman Curia (the body governing the Universal Church), and the Pope, being the Bishop of Rome, is still a bishop, but is preeminent due to him being the successor of the Apostle Peter, to whom Christ entrusted His Church, and thus the Pope becomes the very Vicar of Christ in this world.

 

There are also many types of bishops, which I will elaborate further below :

 

1. Diocesan bishops : These are the ordinary bishops, who head a diocese. A diocese is a division of the Church in a certain geographical area consisting of the faithful in Christ, who may share same culture, language, and customs, or may be of diverse linguistic and cultural origins.

 

2. Archbishops : These are the bishops who head a more important diocese, either by location, or by history, or by some other reasons. These dioceses therefore are also correspondingly named archdioceses. There are two types of archdioceses :

          a. Metropolitan Archdiocese : An archdiocese that has an overseer status over one or more other dioceses (called suffragan dioceses or suffragan sees) which are grouped together into an Ecclesiastical Province (or Province of the Church), and headed by a Metropolitan Archbishop, whose distinguishing feature is that he wears a pallium (a woolen shoulder band with black crosses).

          b. Archdioceses (directly subject) : These Archdioceses are important dioceses which has either been historically a metropolitan see or diocese that were elevated to an archdiocese status, but these are not overseeing any dioceses under them, and therefore stand alone on its own, directly subject to the Holy See, to the Pope, instead of through a Metropolitan. The Archdiocese of Singapore is of this type.

 

3. Auxiliary bishops : These are ‘helper’ bishops, who are appointed in larger dioceses/archdioceses to help with the administration of the diocese/archdiocese’s large Catholic population. May also succeed the diocesan bishop/archbishop upon retirement if selected by the Pope, but this succession is not automatic (not like that of a coadjutor). They are given titular see (diocese/archdiocese) upon their appointment as auxiliary bishop.

 

4. Coadjutor Archbishops/Bishops : These are bishops/archbishops appointed to dioceses/archdioceses to succeed the diocesan bishop/archbishop, whose age may be nearing 75 or in ill health. Bishops have to submit their resignation to the Pope upon reaching the age of 75, so the appointment of a coadjutor is a way to ensure that the diocese does not become vacant if the diocesan bishop resigns, and is a good way to prepare the coadjutor for the eventual succession and duty as the new bishop of the diocese. Coadjutors are not given any titular sees since they are bound immediately to the see (diocese/archdiocese) which they are to succeed in the future.

 

5. Titular dioceses/archdioceses : These are usually ancient dioceses/archdioceses, mostly located in North Africa and the Middle East, which due to historical events, had fallen into seclusion and extinction. Some can also be found in Europe and Italy, where some dioceses and archdiocese had been suppressed in the past, and become titular sees. These are now given to Apostolic Nuncios, Apostolic Delegates, and the auxiliary bishops.

 

6. Major Archdioceses : These are only found in the Eastern Catholic Churches, namely the main diocese in the Syro-Malankar, Syro-Malabar, Romanian, and Ukrainian Eastern Catholic Churches, whose importance place them into this special type of Archdioceses, but not high enough to be given the title of a Patriarchate itself.

 

7. Patriarchate (Latin and Eastern Catholic) : These are the special Patriarchal sees headed by a Patriarch, which in the Eastern Catholic Churches are the leaders of their respective Churches, in full communion with the Bishop of Rome. They are the Patriarchs of the ancient Pentarchy, of Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Antioch, and historically of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul). However, in our approach to our sister Church of the Eastern Orthodox (who is not yet in full communion with Rome), we respect their Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, who is the leader of the Eastern Orthodox faithful. Latin Patriarchates also exist in Lisbon, Venice, and Goa, which are headed by Roman Catholic Archbishops, but with special Patriarchal title, due to their distinctive history in the Church. Rome itself was a Patriarchate (of the West) until 2006, but was abolished by Pope Benedict XVI to better reflect the position of the Pope as the leader of the Universal Church, and not just the Church of the West (the Roman Church).

 

So, therefore, after talking about bishops, who they are, and what types of bishops are there, let us now look into the vestments and the items particular to bishops, all of which are steeped in the tradition of the faith and filled with deep symbolism.

 

1. Working dress (worn outside Mass and important events, the daily wear of bishops, and also for Cardinals and Popes)

a. Simar            

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A simar is a special type of cassock worn by the bishops, cardinals, and popes, that is a cassock with a shoulder cape, and a sash (around the waist), which is violet for bishops, scarlet for cardinals, and white for popes. As is well known, the Pope’s simar is white in colour, while bishop’s and cardinal’s simar is black, and with violet lining for bishops, and scarlet lining for cardinals.

 

b. Pectoral cross (also part of the pontificalia and the choir dress)

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The pectoral cross is worn as its name suggests, on the breast, to represent Christ who protects us from harm, as noted in the prayer of the bishop when he wear the pectoral cross before the Mass, called Munire me dignerisMunire digneris me, Domine Jesu Christe, ab omnibus insidiis inimicorum omnium, signo sanctissimae Crucis tuae: ac concedere digneris mihi indigno servo tuo, ut sicut hanc Crucem, Sanctorum tuorum reliquiis refertam, ante pectus meum teneo, sic semper mente retineam at memoriam passionis, et sanctorum victorias Martyrum. (May You graciously protect me, o Lord Jesus Christ, from all the snares of all my enemies, the sign of the Your most holy Cross: that You would vouch and grant to me and all unworthy of being Your servant, that I may receive the Cross, filled with the remains of Your Saints, in front of my breast, I hold, then it always in mind, but retain the memory of the passion, martyrs and saints victories.). 

This is because pectoral crosses are usually precious and contain the relics of the saints, which therefore be further a reminder that the bishop carries with Him at all times, Christ, and His holy Saints, and a reminder of the Cross, through which the salvation of our Lord comes to us.

 

c. Zucchetto (or skullcap)

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Zucchetto is from the Italian word which means small gourd, because its shape which resembles (half of) a pumpkin. This is a head covering item for the bishops, cardinals, and popes, with the similar pattern of violet for bishops, scarlet for cardinals, and white for popes. This item has a lot in common and may have originated from the Jewish prayer cap, which is somewhat different from the zucchetto in appearance. Originally zucchetto has a practical use in the past, since the clergy in that era were tonsured, that is having their head shaved at the centre, and thus, without the present day heating available, during cold times, the head of the prelate (bishops) would become cold, and the zucchetto came in handy as a covering.

Nowadays, it is a symbol of prayer, and also honor, and therefore, as a sign of humility, it is always removed at the beginning of the Preface of the Eucharistic Prayer and the head of the bishops (including cardinals and Popes) remain bare throughout the Eucharistic Prayer and the Communion.

 

d. Episcopal ring

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The episcopal ring symbolises the bishop as the shepherd is married to God’s Church, in particular the diocese and the sheep, the faithful in Christ whom he is supposed to guide as the shepherd. The prayer the bishop said when wearing it reflects that this ring is also a symbol of virtue and sanctification, and blessing : Cordis et corporis mei, Domine, digitos virtute decora, et septiformis Spiritus sanctificatione circumda. (With my heart and of my body, O Lord, decorate my fingers with virtue, and sanctify me with the sevenfold blessing of the Holy Spirit around me).

 

2. Choir dress (worn during the Mass if the bishop is not the celebrant or concelebrant in the Mass, and events like Vespers, and also worn outside for important events)

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a. Cassock with fascia/sash

This cassock with sash style is similar to the simar, but is entirely violet for bishops and scarlet for cardinals (as opposed to black with violet or scarlet lining)

 

b. Rochet

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A beautiful, usually thin, either white or translucent, and laced piece of clothing worn over the cassock and the fascia, as seen worn above by Monsignor Georg Ganswein, now Archbishop Ganswein, Prefect of the Pontifical Household.

 

c. Mozzetta

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Mozzetta (violet for bishops) is a shoulder cape worn over the rochet and the cassock.

 

d. Pectoral cross

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Similar with in working dress, but more often worn with a cord rather than a chain.

 

e. Zucchetto

Violet for bishops. Similar as in the working dress.

 

f. Biretta

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A hat-like item which has the same ancestry as our modern academic mortar board (worn on the graduations in universities), which is violet for bishops and has a pom-pom like object on the top. Only has three peaks, and the unpeaked side is always worn on the left.

 

3. Bishop’s Pontificalia (worn during the Mass when celebrating)

a. Dalmatic

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Similar as those worn by deacons, which has squarish-edges as compared to the chasuble (which has more rounded edges), worn over the alb but under the chasuble. Here is the picture of our Pope Benedict XVI wearing the dalmatic during the consecration of a new church in Rome, after he took off his chasuble for the anointing of the altar with holy oils.

 

b. Chasuble

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Chasuble as worn by the priests, worn over the dalmatic and the stole, and in this picture, Pope Benedict XVI wore the more traditional Roman-style chasuble, and very visibly underneath the chasuble, is the dalmatic. Only bishops can wear both the chasuble and the dalmatic.

 

c. Pectoral cross

Worn under the chasuble, not over the chasuble, either the normal chained or corded pectoral cross. Not correctly worn when worn above the chasuble, although many bishops seem to do this. Pope Benedict XVI himself consistently wear the pectoral cross under the chasuble since the beginning of his Pontificate.

 

d. Episcopal ring

Worn on the finger, which signify his marriage to God and His Church.

 

e. Mitre

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Worn over the zucchetto on the head, and was developed from the camelaucum, or the secular headdress of the late Roman Empire and early Byzantine Empire, where they are also worn by the Popes and the Roman priests, and gradually was restricted only to bishops and abbots.

The mitre symbolises the teaching authority of the bishops, which are symbolised by the two peaks of the mitre, representing the Old and the New Testament, and also recall the flames of the Holy Spirit that inflame the hearts of the Apostles to spread the Good News to all peoples. Therefore, these represents the authority of the bishop to teach the Gospel through the Holy Spirit and based on the Scripture, the Word of God, both the Old and the New Testament. The two lappets behind the mitre themselves also represent the Old and the New Testament, the two sides of the Lord’s Sacred Scripture (which shape looks just like a book marker).

 

f. Crosier (Pastoral staff)

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The crosier, or the pastoral staff is the crook-like staff, reminding us on the shepherd’s crook, which they use to shepherd their sheep. Thus, the crosier represents the bishops’ role as the shepherds of the people of God, and guide them in their journey towards the Lord, the Chief Shepherd, the Good Shepherd.

 

g. Pallium (only for Metropolitan Archbishops and the Pope)

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The pallium is a woolen band worn around the shoulder. This represent the metropolitan’s role as the overseer of the faithful, over the sheep of the Lord, that is the faithful people of God, just like Jesus, the Good Shepherd carrying His sheep on His shoulder. Therefore, the pallium represents both the authority of the metropolitan, and the burden presented by his ministry in the service of the Lord.

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The pallium used to be much wider, as reflected in the earlier pallium that Pope Benedict XVI wore, which used the style not worn since a millenia ago, in the earlier days of the Church. Now the most common form of the pallium is a shorter and narrower woolen band worn around the shoulders, and adorned with three pins that represent the nails that pieced Christ on the cross, and these pins were placed onto the black crosses (red for Pope Benedict XVI’s new, larger pallium and the earlier, much larger pallium), which represent the wounds of Christ.

 

After all that, and after looking into what a bishop is, what is the nature of the ministry of the bishops, the types of bishops, what they wear and what symbolisms are there in them, let us now take a time to pray, and pray indeed for the soon-to-be ordained Coadjutor Archbishop, William Goh, of the Archdiocese of Singapore.

May God be with him all the days of his new ministry as bishop, and strengthen him at all times, that when his ministry begins this Friday, the Holy Spirit will guide him and keep him faithful to the ministry he has been chosen for, forever and ever. Amen!

 

Episcopal Ordination of Coadjutor Archbishop William Goh of Singapore, Part I : The Mass and ceremony itself

What is an Episcopal Ordination? It is the event celebrated with a Mass that mark the continuation of the Apostolic ministry to a new bishop, signified most importantly by the laying of hands by other bishops and the presiding bishop (consecrator), and the imposition of the pontificalia or the vestments and items particular to bishops, which are all representative of his ministry as bishop.

I have written this in conjunction with the Episcopal Ordination of the Coadjutor Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Singapore, Archbishop William Goh Seng Chye, which will be held in the EXPO, Singapore on Friday, 22 February 2013, on the Feast of Chair of St. Peter.

 

Some terms :

Consecrator : the main presiding bishop at the Episcopal Ordination, similar to celebrant in the celebration of the Mass. In the case of Friday’s ordination, it will be the Apostolic Nuncio to Singapore, Archbishop Leopoldo Girelli

Co-consecrators : the assistant bishops at the Episcopal Ordination, similar to concelebrant in the celebration of the Mass. In the case of Friday’s ordination, it will be the Archbishop of Singapore, Archbishop Nicholas Chia, and the Metropolitan Archbishop of Kuala Lumpur, Archbishop Murphy Pakiam.

Other bishops present in the Ordination can also help out with the laying of the hands, following that of the consecrator and co-consecrator’s laying of hands.

 

The ceremony itself will begin as a usual Mass would, beginning with the entrance procession. The new bishop to be ordained usually walks in front of the presiding bishop (consecrator), and usually accompanied by two deacons (just as all bishops should, that means the presiding bishop too when available should also have two deacons to accompany him).

Then begin the Mass as usual with the incensing of the altar, the sign of the Cross, the opening address if there is any, and followed by the Penitential Act (I confess to Almighty God…) and the Kyrie (Lord have mercy). Gloria follows after that. One may ask that this is Lenten season where Gloria is not used, but the day of the ordination for this case, 22 February falls on the Feast of Chair of St. Peter where Gloria is used (as is Te Deum later in the ceremony).

 

After Gloria concludes, then it comes to the opening prayer, and then the readings come as per the usual Mass. First Reading, followed by the Psalm, and finally by the Gospel. No Alleluia for this case since it happens during Lent, and at Lent Alleluia is always omitted, so we have the Lenten Gospel Acclamation instead.

After the Gospel, the Ordination ceremony proper begins.

 

The first part begins with usually the singing of the Hymn of the Holy Spirit (Veni Creator Spiritus), with all the verses used. Then after the Hymn is completed, this is followed by the presentation of the Bishop/Archbishop-elect, that is Coadjutor Archbishop-elect William Goh in this case (He is not yet legally and validly bishop at this point).

The presiding bishop can give a homily following the presentation of the Bishop-elect, usually to explain on the ministry of the bishop and the nature of that ministry.

 

Then the promise/vow of the bishop-elect follows, where the new Bishop solemnly vows before God his promise : (In Latin and English)

1. Latin : Antiqua sanctorum Patrum institutio praecipit, ut, qui Episcopus ordinandus est, coram populo interrogetur de proposito fidei servandae et muneris exsequendi.

Vultis ergo, frater carissimus (fratres carissimi if plural), munus nobis ab Apostolis creditum et vobis per impositionem manuum nostrarum tradendum cum gratia Spiritus Sancti usque ad mortem explere?

English : The ancient rule of the holy Fathers ordains that a Bishop-elect is to be questioned in the presence of the people on his resolve to uphold the faith and to discharge his duty.

And so dear brothers, do you resolve by the grace of the Holy Spirit to discharge until death the office entrusted to us by the Apostles, which we are about to pass on to you by the laying on of our hands?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

2. Latin : Vultis Evangelium Christi fideliter et indesinenter praedicare?

English : Do you resolve to preach the Gospel of Christ with constancy and fidelity?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

3. Latin : Vultis depositum fidei, secundum traditionem inde ab Apostolis in Ecclesia semper et ubique servatam, purum et integrum custodire?

English : Do you resolve to guard the deposit of faith, entire and incorrupt, as handed down by the Apostles and preserved in the Church everywhere and at all times?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

4. Latin : Vultis corpus Christi, Ecclesiam eius, aedificare et eius unitate cum Ordine Episcoporum, sub auctoritate successoris beati Petri Apostoli, permanere?

English : Do you resolve to build up the body of Christ, His Church, and to remain in the unity of that body together with the Order of Bishops under the authority of the successor of Saint Peter the Apostle?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

5. Latin : Vultis beati Petri Apostoli successori, obaedientiam fideliter exhibere?

English : Do you resolve to render obedience faithfully to the succesor of the blessed Apostle Peter?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

6. Latin : Vultis plebem Dei sanctam, cum comministris vestris presbyteris et diaconis, ut pii pater, fovere et in viam salutis dirigere?

English : Do you resolve to guide the holy people of God in the way of salvation as devoted father and sustain them with the help of your fellow ministers, the priests, and deacons?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

7. Latin : Vultis pauperibus et peregrinis omnibusque indigentibus propter nomen Domini affabiles et misericordes vos praebere?

English : Do you resolve, for the sake of the Lord’s Name, to be welcoming and merciful to the poor, to strangers, and to all who are in need?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

8. Latin : Vultis oves errantes ut boni pastores requirere et ovili dominico aggregare?

English : Do you resolve as good shepherds to seek out the sheep who stray and gather them into the Lord’s fold?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo (English : I do)

 

9. Latin : Vultis Deum omnipotentem pro populo sancto indesinenter orare et sine reprehensione summi sacerdotii munus explere?

English : Do you resolve to pray without ceasing to Almighty God for the holy people and to carry out the office of high priest without reproach?

The bishop-elect answers : Volo, Deo auxiliante (English : I do, with the help of God)

 

After this, the Litany of the Saints begins, asking the prayer from all the saints, martyrs, and all holy men of God to pray for the new bishop. The bishop-elect prostrate himself on the floor as a sign of humility before God, during the Litany of the Saints.

 

(R = reply) (Here shown both Latin and English versions)

1. Kyrie, eleison                                        R : Kyrie, eleison

Lord, have mercy                                    R : Lord, have mercy

 

2. Christe, eleison                                    R : Christe, eleison

Christ have mercy                                   R : Christ, have mercy

 

3. Kyrie, eleison                                       R : Kyrie, eleison

Lord have mercy                                     R : Lord, have mercy

 

4. Sancta Maria, Mater Dei                  R : ora pro nobis

Holy Mary, Mother of God                  R : pray for us

 

5. Sancte Michael                                    R : ora pro nobis

Saint Michael                                            R : pray for us

 

6. Sancti Angeli Dei                                 R : orate pro nobis

Holy Angels of God                                 R : pray for us

 

7. Sancte Ioannes Baptista                   R : ora pro nobis

Saint John the Baptist                             R : pray for us

 

8. Sancte Ioseph                                        R : ora pro nobis

Saint Joseph                                                R : pray for us

 

9. Sancte Petre                                            R : ora pro nobis

Saint Peter                                                    R : pray for us

 

10. Sancte Paule                                         R : ora pro nobis

Saint Paul                                                      R : pray for us

 

11. Sancte Andrea                                      R : ora pro nobis

Saint Andrew                                               R : pray for us

 

12. Sancte Iacobe                                       R : ora pro nobis

Saint James                                                   R : pray for us

 

13. Sancte Ioannes                                     R : ora pro nobis

Saint John                                                      R : pray for us

 

14. Sancte Thoma                                        R : ora pro nobis

Saint Thomas                                                 R : pray for us

 

15. Sancte Iacobe                                        R : ora pro nobis

Saint James                                                    R : pray for us

 

16. Sancte Philippe                                      R : ora pro nobis

Saint Philip                                                      R : pray for us

 

17. Sancte Bartholomae                             R : ora pro nobis

Saint Bartholomew                                       R : pray for us

 

18. Sancte Matthae                                       R : ora pro nobis

Saint Matthew                                                 R : pray for us

 

19. Sancte Simon                                            R : ora pro nobis

Saint Simon                                                       R : pray for us

 

20. Sancte Thaddae                                       R : ora pro nobis

Saint Thaddeus                                                R : pray for us

 

21. Sancte Matthia                                         R : ora pro nobis

Saint Matthew                                                  R : pray for us

 

22. Sancta Maria Magdalena                      R : ora pro nobis

Saint Mary Magdalene                                  R : pray for us

 

23. Sancte Stephane                                       R : ora pro nobis

Saint Stephen                                                    R : pray for us

 

24. Sancte Ignati Antiochene                     R : ora pro nobis

Saint Ignatius of Antioch                              R : pray for us

 

25. Sancte Laurenti                                         R : ora pro nobis

Saint Lawrence                                                  R : pray for us

 

26. Sanctae Perpetua et Felicitas               R : orate pro nobis

Saint Perpetua and Saint Felicity               R : pray for us

 

27. Sancta Agnes                                              R : ora pro nobis

Saint Agnes                                                         R : pray for us

 

28. Sancte Georgi                                             R : ora pro nobis

Saint George                                                       R : pray for us

 

29. Sancte Fortunate                                      R : ora pro nobis

Saint Fortunatus                                               R : pray for us

 

30. Sancte Gregori                                           R : ora pro nobis

Saint Gregory                                                     R : pray for us

 

31. Sancte Augustine                                      R : ora pro nobis

Saint Augustine                                                R : pray for us

 

32. Sancte Athanasi                                        R : ora pro nobis

Saint Athanasius                                              R : pray for us

 

33. Sancte Basili                                               R : ora pro nobis

Saint Basil                                                            R : pray for us

 

34, Sancte Martine                                          R : ora pro nobis

Saint Martin                                                       R : pray for us

 

35. Sancte Nicolae                                          R : ora pro nobis

Saint Nicholas                                                   R : pray for us

 

36. Sancte Benedicte                                     R : ora pro nobis

Saint Benedict                                                  R : pray for us

 

37. Sancte Francisce et Dominice            R : orate pro nobis

Saint Francis and Saint Dominic               R : pray for us

 

38. Sancte Francisce Xavier                       R : ora pro nobis

Saint Francis Xavier                                      R : pray for us

 

39. Sancte Vincenti de Paul                        R : ora pro nobis

Saint Vincent de Paul                                    R : pray for us

 

40. Sancte Ioannes Maria Vianney         R : ora pro nobis

Saint John Mary Vianney                            R : pray for us

 

41. Sancta Catharina Senensis                   R : ora pro nobis

Saint Catherine of Siena                               R : pray for us

 

42. Sancta Teresia a Iesu                             R : ora pro nobis

Saint Teresa of Jesus                                     R : pray for us

 

43. Omnes Sancti et Sanctae Dei                   R : orate pro nobis

All holy men and women, Saints of God    R : pray for us

 

44. Propitius esto                                           R : libera nos, Domine

Lord, be merciful                                            R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

45. Ab omni malo                                           R : libera nos, Domine

From all evil                                                     R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

46. Ab omni peccato                                     R : libera nos, Domine

From every sin                                                R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

47. A morte perpetua                                    R : libera nos, Domine

From everlasting death                                R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

48. Per incarnationem tuam                       R : libera nos, Domine

By Your incarnation                                       R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

49. Per mortem et resurrectionem tuam        R :  libera nos, Domine

By Your death and resurrection                        R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

50. Per effusionem Spiritus Sancti             R : libera nos, Domine

By the outpouring of the Holy Spirit         R : Lord, deliver us, we pray

 

51. Peccatores                                                    R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Be merciful to us sinners                               R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

52. Ut Ecclesiam tuam sanctam regere et conservare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Govern and protect your Holy Church

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

53. Ut domnum apostolicum et omnes ecclesiasticos ordines in sancta religione conservare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Keep the Pope and all the ordained in faithful service to Your Church

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

54. Ut hos electos benedicere digneris              R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Bless these (this) chosen men (man)                   R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

55. Ut hos electos benedicere et santificare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Bless and sanctify these (this) chosen men (man)

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

56. Ut hos electos benedicere et sanctificare et consecrare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Bless, sanctify, and consecrate these (this) chosen men (man)

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

57. Ut cunctis populis pacem et veram concordiam donare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Bring all peoples together in peace and true harmony

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

58. Ut omnis in tribulatione versantibus misericordiam tuam largiri digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Comfort with Your mercy the troubled and the afflicted

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

59. Ut nosmetipsos in tuo sancto servitio confortare et conservare digneris

R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Strengthen all of us and keep us in Your holy service

R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

60. Iesu, Fili Dei vivi                                            R : Te rogamus, audi nos

Jesus, Son of the living God                              R : Lord, we ask You, hear our prayer

 

61. Christe, audi nos                                            R : Christe, audi nos

Christ, hear us                                                        R : Christ, hear us

 

62. Christe, exaudi nos                                      R : Christe, exaudi nos

Christ, graciously hear us                                R : Christ, graciously hear us

 

(The Litany of the Saints is slightly different and longer than the usual one as this one is used for the Episcopal Ordination Mass proper, which contains more prayers for the bishop-elect)

 

Then the presider will pray this prayer after the Litany :

Latin : Propitiare, Domine, supplicationibus nostris, et inclinato super hos famulos tuos cornu gratiae sacerdotalis, benedictionis tuae in eos effunde virtutem. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

English : Graciously hear our petitions, o Lord, and pour out upon these, Your servants, the power of Your blessing, flowing from the horn of priestly grace. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

 

The imposition or laying of hands then follow. Beginning with the consecrator and the co-consecrators, they lay their hands on the bishop-elect’s head, as a sign of the passing down of the Holy Spirit they themselves have received through the Apostolic Succession, from the Apostles, and therefore from Christ.

(During this time, the other bishops in attendance may also lay their hands on the head of the new Bishop as a symbol of the continuing power that came from the Apostles, the unbroken Apostolic Succession from the Apostles themselves, empowering the new Bishop with the same authority and power God has given to the Apostles).

 

Then this is followed by the placing of the Holy Scripture opened up above the head of the new Bishop, as a symbol that the new Bishop will stay true to the Word of God in the Scripture, and will do his best to carry out the will of God, and make the Word of God centre of his life and his mission as the Bishop, as the shepherd of God’s people.

The moment and words that made an Episcopal Ordination valid and legal (when done by the proper authority and in accordance with the Canon Law) are highlighted in bold below. The Principal consecrator then pray together with the co-consecrators and the other bishops over the new Bishop (with the Sacred Scripture above his head).

 

Latin : Deus et Pater Domini nostri Iesu Christi, Pater misericordiarum et Deus totius consolationis, qui in excelsis habeas et humilia respicis, qui cognoscis omnia antequam nascantur, tu qui dedisti in Ecclesia tua normas per verbum gratiae tuae, qui praedestinasti ex principio genus iustorum ab Abraham, qui constituisti principes et sacerdotes, et sanctuarium tuum sine ministerio non dereliquisti, cui ab initio mundi placuit in his quos eligisti glorificari :

Et nunc effunde super hos electos eam virtutem, quae a te est, Spiritum principalem, quem dedisti dilecto Filio tuo Iesu Christo, quem ipse donavit sanctis Apostolis, qui constituerunt Ecclesiam per singula loca ut sanctuarium tuum, in gloriam et laudem indeficientem nominis tui.

Da, cordium cognitor Pater, his servis tuis, quos elegisti ad Episcopatum, ut pascant gregem sanctum tuum, et suum sacerdotium tibi exhibeant sine reprehensione, servientes tibi nocte et die, ut incessanter vultum tuum propitium reddant et offerant dona sanctae Ecclesiae tuae; da ut virtute Spiritus summi sacerdotii habeant potestatem dimittendi peccata secundum mandatum tuum; ut distribuant munera secundum praeceptum tuum et solvant omne vinculum secundum potestatem quam dedisti Apostolis; placeant tibi in mansuetudine et mundo corde, offerentes tibi odorem suavitatis, per Filium tuum Iesum Christum, per quem tibi gloria et potentia et honor, cum Spiritu Sancto in sancta Ecclesia et nunc et in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

 

English : God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Father of mercies and God of all consolation, who dwell on high and look on the lowly, who know all things before they come to be; and who laid down observances in Your Church through the word of Your grace; who from the beginning, foreordained a nation of the just, born of Abraham; who established rulers and priests and did not leave Your sanctuary without ministers, and who, from the foundation of the world, were pleased to be glorified in those You have chosen :

Pour out now upon these (this) chosen ones (one) that power which is from You, the Spirit of governance whom You gave to Your beloved Son, Jesus Christ, the Spirit whom He bestowed upon the holy Apostles, who established the Church in each place as Your sanctuary for the glory and unceasing praise of Your Name.

Grant, o Father, knower of all hearts, that these (this), Your servant(s), whom You have chosen for the office of Bishop may shepherd Your holy flock, Serving You night and day, may they fulfill before You without reproach the ministry of the High Priesthood; so that, always gaining Your favour, they (he) may offer up the gifts of Your Holy Church. Grant that, by the power of the Spirit of the High Priesthood, they may have the power to forgive sins according to Your command, assign offices according to Your decree, and loose every bond according to the power given by You to the Apostles. May they please You by their meekness and purity of heart, presenting a fragrant offering in You, through Your Son, Jesus Christ, through whom glory and power and honor are Yours with the Holy Spirit in the Holy Church, now and forever. Amen.

 

After this, the consecrator bishop will anoint the hands of the new Bishop with the sacred chrism oil, signifying that the bishop is the anointed one of God, given by God the authority of the High Priesthood of Christ, which he share.

Latin : Deus, qui summi Christi sacerdotii participem te effecit, ipse te mysticae delibutionis liquore perfundat, et spiritualis benedictionis ubertate fecundet.

English : May God, who has made you a sharer in the High Priesthood of Christ, Himself pour out upon you the oil of mystical anointing and make you fruitful with an abundance of spiritual blessings.

 

Then, the new Bishop receives the Book of the Gospels (Evangelium), the Word of God, to remind him of his duty to teach and preach the word of God to his flock.

Latin : Accipe Evangelium et verbum Dei praedica in omni patientia et doctrina.

English : Receive the Gospel and preach the word of God with all patience and sound teaching.

 

Then, the new Bishop receives the Episcopal ring, the sign that he is married to God and His Holy Church, and thus the flock he is entrusted to.

Latin : Accipe anulum, fidei signaculum : et sponsam Dei, sanctam Ecclesiam, intemerata fide orantus, illibate custodi.

English : Receive this ring, the seal of fidelity : adorned with undefiled faith, preserve unblemished the bride of God, the holy Church.

 

Then, the new Bishop receives the mitre, the symbol of authority, that he now teach as the teacher of faith in the authority given to Him by Christ, and as a crown of glory and holiness given to him by Christ.

Latin : Accipe mitram, et clarescat in te splendor sanctitatis, ut cum apparuerit princeps pastorum, immarcescibilem gloriae coronam percipere merearis.

English : Receive the mitre, and may the splendour of holiness shine forth in you, so that when the Chief Shepherd appears you may deserve to receive from Him an unfading crown of glory.

 

Finally, the new Bishop receives the pastoral crosier, which is a symbol of his pastoral office as a shepherd to God’s people, the sheep entrusted to him to care, and to govern through the authority given to him by the Holy Spirit.

Latin : Accipe baculum, pastoralis muneris signum, et attende universo gregi, in quo te Spiritus Sanctus posuit Episcopum regere Ecclesiam Dei.

English : Receive the crosier, the sign of your pastoral office, and keep watch over the whole flock in which the Holy Spirit has placed you as Bishop to govern the Church of God.

 

After all are done, the new Bishop is presented to the people and all the faithful. An appropriate hymn, or hymn in honour of the new Bishop may be sung or played at this time. Then the Mass proceeds as normal with the Creed.

 

The Mass and the Eucharist, and then the Communion proceed as it is in a normal Mass. Then, after the concluding prayer (Prayer after Communion) is said, Te Deum is usually sung. Te Deum as the hymn that glorifies God and usually sang at events including ordinations, and show that through the ordination of this new bishop, God’s glory is made manifest in this world.

 

Te Deum

 

Te Deum laudamus, te Dominum confitemur

We praise You, o God, we acclaim You as the Lord.

 

Te aeternum Patrem, omnis terra veneratur.

Everlasting Father, all the world bows down before You.

 

Tibi omnes angeli, tibi caeli et universae potestatis;

All the angels sing Your praise, the hosts of heaven and all the angelic powers;

 

tibi cherubim et seraphim incessabili voce proclamant :

all the cherubim and seraphim call out to You in unending song :

 

Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth.

Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord of God of the angelic hosts.

 

Pleni sunt caeli et terra, maiestatis gloriae tuae.

The heavens and the earth are filled with Your majesty and glory.

 

Te gloriosus Apostolorum chorus,

The glorious band of apostles,

 

te prophetarum laudabilis numerus,

the noble company of prophets,

 

te martyrum candidatus laudat exercitus.

the marytrs who shed their blood for Christ, all sing Your praise.

 

Te per orbem terrarum sancta confitetur Ecclesia,

And to the ends of the earth, Your Holy Church proclaims her faith in You,

 

Patrem immensae maiestatis;

Father, whose majesty is boundless;

 

venerandum  tuum verum et unicum Filium;

Your true and only Son, who is to be adored;

 

Sanctum quoque Paraclitum Spiritum.

the Holy Spirit sent to be our Advocate.

 

Tu rex gloriae, Christe.

You, Christ, are the King of glory.

 

Tu Patris sempiternus es Filius.

Son of the Eternal Father.

 

Tu, ad liberandum suscepturus hominem, non horruisti Virginis uterum.

When You took our nature to save mankind, You did not shrink from birth in the Virgin’s womb.

 

Tu, devicto mortis aculeo, aperuisti credentibus regna caelorum.

You overcame the power of death, opening the Father’s kingdom to all who believe in You.

 

Tu ad dexteram Dei sedes, in gloria Patris.

Enthroned at God’s right hand, in the glory of the Father.

 

Iudex crederis esse venturus.

You will come in judgement according to Your promise.

 

Te ergo quaesumus, tuis famulis subveni, quos pretioso sanguine redemisti.

You redeemed Your people by Your Precious Blood. Come, we implore You, to our aid.

 

Aeterna fac cum sanctis tuis in gloria numerari.

Grant us with the saints, a place in eternal glory.

 

Then the Mass ends with the final blessing and dismissal. Thus ends the Episcopal Ordination Mass. The guide above is not conclusive, as there may be variations in the wording and the hymn depending on the local needs and customs.

 

Let us pray for the Coadjutor Archbishop of Singapore, Msgr. William Goh, that God will truly pour down on him, the Holy Spirit, that he will be a great shepherd to His people, in His Church in Singapore. Amen.