(Usus Antiquior) The Feast of Corpus Christi (I Classis) – Thursday, 8 June 2023 : Holy Gospel

Liturgical Colour : White

Sequentia Sancti Evangelii secundum Joannem – Continuation of the Holy Gospel according to St. John

John 6 : 56-59

In illo tempore : Dixit Jesus turbis Judaeorum : Caro Mea vere est cibus et Sanguis Meus vere est potus. Qui manducat Meam Carnem et bibit Meum Sanguinem, in Me manet et Ego in illo.

Sicut misit Me vivens Pater, et Ego vivo propter Patrem : et qui manducat Me, et ipse vivet propter Me. Hic est Panis, qui de caelo descendit. Non sicut manducaverunt patres vestri manna, et mortui sunt. Qui manducat hunc Panem, vivet in aeternum.

English translation

At that time, Jesus said to the multitudes of the Jews, “My Flesh is meat indeed, and My Blood is drink indeed. He who eats My Flesh, and drinks My Blood abides in Me, and I in him.”

“As the living Father had sent Me, and I live by the Father, so he who eats Me, the same shall also live by Me. This is the Bread that came down from heaven. Not as your fathers had eaten manna and are dead. He who eats this Bread shall live forever.”

(Usus Antiquior) The Feast of Corpus Christi (I Classis) – Thursday, 8 June 2023 : Sequence

Liturgical Colour : White

Sequence of St. Thomas Aquinas, 13th Century

Lauda Sion Salvatorem, Lauda ducem et pastorem in hymnis et canticis.

Quantum Potes, Tantum Aude : Quia major omni laude, Nec laudare sufficis.

Laudis Thema Specialis, Panis vivus et vitalis, Hodie proponitur.

Quem in Sacrae Mensa Coenae, Turbae fratrum duodenae datum non ambigitur.

Sit Laus Plena, Sit Sonora, Sit jucunda, sit decora mentis jubilatio.

Dies Enim Solemnis Agitur, In qua mensae prima recolitur hujus institutio.

In Hac Mensa Novi Regis, Novum Pascha novae legis, Phase vetus terminat.

Vetustatem Novitas, Umbram fugat veritas, Noctem lux eliminat.

Quod in Coena Christus Gessit, Faciendum hoc expressit in Sui memoriam.

Docti Sacris Institutis, Panem, vinum, in salutis Consecramus hostiam.

Dogma Datur Christianis, Quod in Carnem transit panis, Et vinum in Sanguinem.

Quod Non Capis, Quod Non Vides, Animosa firmat fides, Praeter rerum ordinem.

Sub Diversis Speciebus, Signis tantum, et non rebus, Latent res eximiae.

Caro Cibus, Sanguis Potus : Manet tamen Christus totus, Sub utraque specie.

Asumente Non Concisus, Non confractus, non divisus : Integer accipitur.

Sumit Unus, Sumunt Mille : Quantum isti, tantum ille : Nec sumptus consumitur.

Sumunt Boni, Sumunt Mali : Sorte tamen inaequali, Vitae vel interitus.

Mors est Malis, Vita Bonis : Vide paris sumptionis quam sit dispar exitus.

Fracto Demum Sacramento, Ne vacilles, sed memento, Tantum esse sub fragmento, Quantum toto tegitur.

Nulla Rei Fit Scissura : Signi tantem fit fractura : Qua nec status nec statura signati minuitur.

Ecce Panis Angelorum, Factus cibus viatorum : Vere panis filiorum, Non mittendus canibus.

In Figuris Praesignatur, Cum Isaac immolatur : Agnus paschae deputatur datur manna patribus.

Bone Pastor, Panis Vere, Jesu, nostri miserere : Tu nos pasce, nos tuere : Tu nos bona fac videre in terra viventium.

Tu, Qui Cuncta Scis Et Vales : Qui nos pascis hic mortales : Tuos ibi commensales, Coheredes et sodales, Fac sanctorum civium.

Amen. Alleluja.

English translation

Praise, o Sion, your Saviour, praise your Leader and your Shepherd in hymns and canticles.

As much as you can, so much you dare, for He is above all praise, nor you are able to praise Him enough.

Today there is given us a special theme of praise, the Bread both living and life-giving.

Which, is not to be doubted, was given to the assembly of the brethren, Twelve in number, at the table of the Holy Supper.

Let our praise be full and sounding, let the jubilations of the soul be joyous and becoming.

For that solemn day is now being celebrated, on which is commemorated the first institution of this table.

At this table of the new King, the new Passover of the New Law puts an end to the ancient Passover.

The new supplants the old, truth puts to flight the shadow, day banishes night.

What Christ did at that Supper, the same He commanded to be done in remembrance of Him.

Taught by His sacred precepts, we consecrate bread and wine into the Victim of salvation.

This is the dogma given to Christians, that bread is changed into Flesh, and wine into Blood.

What you do not understand, what you do not see, a lively faith confirms in a supernatural manner.

Under different species in externals only, and not in reality, wondrous substances lie hidden.

Flesh is good, Blood is drink, nevertheless Christ remains entire under each species.

By the recipient the whole Christ is received, He is neither cut, broken nor divided.

One receives Him, a thousand receive Him, as much as the thousand receive, so much does the one receive, though consumed, He is not diminished.

The good receive Him, the bad receive Him, but with what unequal consequences of life or death.

It is death to the unworthy, life to the worthy, behold then of a like reception, how unlike may be the result!

When the Sacrament is broken, doubt not, but remember, that there is just as much hidden in a fragment, as there is in the whole.

There is no division of the substance, only a breaking of the species takes place, by which neither the state nor stature of the substance signified is diminished.

Lo, the Bread of Angels is made the food of earthly pilgrims. Truly, it is the Bread of children, let it not be cast to dogs.

It was prefigured in types, when Isaac was immolated, when the Paschal Lamb was sacrificed, when Manna was given to the fathers.

O Good Shepherd, True Bread, o Jesus, have mercy on us, feed us and protect us. Make us see good things in the land of the living.

You who knows all things and can do all things, who here feeds us mortals, make us there be Your guests, the co-heirs and companions of the heavenly citizens.

Amen. Alleluia.

(Usus Antiquior) The Feast of Corpus Christi (I Classis) – Thursday, 8 June 2023 : Gradual and Alleluia

Liturgical Colour : White

Psalm 144 : 15-16 and John 6 : 56-57

Oculi omnium in Te sperant, Domine : et Tu das illis escam in tempore opportuno.

Response : Aperis Tu manum Tuam : et imples omne animal benedictione.

Alleluja, Alleluja.

Response : Caro Mea vere est cibus, et Sanguis Meus vere est potus : qui manducat Meam Carnem et bibit Meum Sanguinem, in Me manet et Ego in eo.

English translation

The eyes of all hope in You, o Lord, and You give them meat in due season.

Response : You opened Your hand, and fill every living creature with Your blessing.

Alleluia, Alleluia.

Response : My Flesh is meat indeed, and My Blood is drink indeed. He who eats My Flesh and drinks My Blood, abides in Me, and I in him.

(Usus Antiquior) The Feast of Corpus Christi (I Classis) – Thursday, 8 June 2023 : Epistle

Liturgical Colour : White

Lectio Epistolae Beati Pauli Apostoli ad Corinthios – Lesson from the Epistle of Blessed Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians

1 Corinthians 11 : 23-29

Fratres : Ego enim accepi a Domino quod et tradidi vobis, quoniam Dominus Jesus, in qua nocte tradebatur, accepit panem, et gratias agens fregit, et dixit : Accipite, et manducate : hoc est Corpus Meum, quod pro vobis tradetur : hoc facite in Meam commemorationem.

Similiter et calicem, postquam cenavit, dicens : Hic calix Novum Testamentum est in Meo Sanguine. Hoc facite, quotiescumque bibetis, in Meam commemorationem. Quotiescumque enim manducabitis panem hunc et calicem bibetis, mortem Domini annuntiabitis, donec veniat.

Itaque quicumque manducaverit panem hunc vel biberit calicem Domini indigne, reus erit Corporis et Sanguinis Domini. Probet autem seipsum homo : et sic de pane illo edat et de calice bibat. Qui enim manducat et bibit indigne, judicum sibi manducat et bibit : non dijudicans Corpus Domini.

English translation

Brethren, I have received of the Lord, that which I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus, the same night in which He was betrayed, took bread, and giving thanks, broke it, and said, ‘Take all of you and eat, this is My Body which shall be delivered for you, do this for the commemoration of Me.’

In like manner He also took the chalice, after He had finished supper, saying, ‘This chalice is the New Testament in My Blood, this all of you do, as often as you shall drink, for the commemoration of Me.’ For as often as you shall eat this bread, and drink this chalice, you shall show the death of the Lord until He comes.

Therefore whosoever shall eat this bread, or drink of the chalice of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the Body and Blood of the Lord. But let a man prove himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of the chalice. For he who eats and drinks unworthily, eats and drinks judgment to himself, not discerning the Body of the Lord.

(Usus Antiquior) The Feast of Corpus Christi (I Classis) – Thursday, 8 June 2023 : Introit and Collect

Liturgical Colour : White


Psalm 80 : 17, 2

Cibavit eos ex adipe frumenti, Alleluja : et de petra, melle saturavit eos, Alleluja, Alleluja, Alleluja.

Exsultate Deo, adjutorio nostro : jubilate Deo Jacob.

Response : Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto, sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper : et in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

English translation

He fed them with the fat of wheat, Alleluia, and filled them with honey out of the rock, Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia.

Rejoice to God our Helper, sing aloud to the God of Jacob.

Response : Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.


Deus, qui nobis sub Sacramento mirabili passionis Tuae memoriam reliquisti : tribue, quaesumus, ita nos Corporis et Sanguinis Tui sacra mysteria venerari; ut redemptionis Tuae fructum in nobis jugiter sentiamus : Qui vivis et regnat in unitate Spiritui Sancti Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum. Amen.

English translation

O God, Who in this wonderful sacrament has left us a memorial of Your passion, grant us, we beseech You, so to venerate the sacred mysteries of Your Body and Blood that we may constantly experience in ourselves the fruit of Your redemption. You Who lives and reigns in the unity of the Holy Spirit, God, world without end. Amen.

Wednesday, 7 June 2023 : 9th Week of Ordinary Time (Homily and Scripture Reflections)

Liturgical Colour : Green

Dear brothers and sisters in Christ, today all of us listened to the words of the Scriptures, in which we are reminded of God’s providence and love for each and every one of us. All of us are promised a life that is free from the sufferings of this world and all the troubles surrounding us now, which will be ours in due time. The Lord leads us all to this journey towards this new and everlasting life, after our worldly journey comes to an end. We are reminded today that our life in this world is not an end to itself, but is merely a temporary stop towards an eternity to come. Eternal life awaits all of us and no matter how much hardships and sufferings that we will have to endure now, in the end, the Lord will lead us to a new life and existence that is free from all sufferings and hardships, into a life that is full of the grace and love of God, when all of us are risen from the dead with Christ.

In our first reading today, taken from the Book of Tobit, in which both Tobit and Sara, who were facing great tribulation and hardships back then, were praying fervently to God to help them out of their predicament and hardships. Each one of them were suffering greatly because of the challenges that they faced, with Tobit suffering from his blindness and from the ridicule even from his own wife and friends, after his blindness and attitude made him unliked by those who were around him. Meanwhile, Sara was the daughter of Ragouel that was a friend of Tobit’s. She was beset by a powerful demon named Asmodeus, who has struck at all the seven brothers who were married to her and became her husbands. Thus Sara was ridiculed by her own maidservants that accused her of having murdered all of her past husbands when she had done no such thing.

In distress, both Tobit and Sara prayed to the Lord and sought His help and guidance, and the Lord heard them in their distress and all of their prayers. The Lord sent His Archangel Raphael, one of His chief Angels to guide and help both Tobit and Sara, as He sent him to accompany Tobias, the son of Tobit on his journey. Eventually, through the assistance rendered by the Archangel Raphael and all that God had sent to His faithful servants through His Archangel, both Tobit and Sara were liberated from their misery and troubles. They were given reprieve, and not just that, but even greater blessings from God, much as what we may know of another tragic story in the Scriptures, that of the man of God, Job, who similarly faced hardships and difficulties before he was freed from all those.

In our Gospel passage today, we heard of the Lord Jesus speaking to a group of Sadducees who challenged the Lord, questioned Him and attempted to test the Lord by using a case study, which was rather similar to what we have heard from the Book of Tobit. The Sadducees were one of the two most influential and powerful groups in the society of the Jewish people at that time in the region, especially at Judea and in Jerusalem. Those Sadducees consisted of those whose beliefs were diametrically opposite of the conservative and hardline religious members of the Pharisees. As opposed to the deeply spiritual and Law-observant Pharisees, the Sadducees were those who rejected any spiritual aspects of the Jewish society. They did not believe in the resurrection, or the Angels or any other spiritual matters.

Thus, they were mostly a worldly people with lots of influence and wealth, through which they exercised their power and influence. They asked the Lord regarding how resurrection was possible if in the case study they presented, seven brothers who shared a wife eventually died, and when the woman herself died, whose wife she would be, as they thought in the ways of the people of this world. The Lord thus refuted their thoughts and way of beliefs, by saying that whatever the world to come is to be like, it will be different from our way of life in this world, which is often materialistic and even to the point of being hedonistic and selfish, filled with greed and worldly desires. There is indeed a life beyond death, life that is fully satisfied by the fullness of grace from God.

The Lord Jesus reminded us all that if we seek satisfaction from this world, we will soon be easily disappointed by the hardships, challenges, rejection, ridicule and all the obstacles we may encounter on the way. Like what Tobit and Sara had experienced during their most difficult moments, without the guidance and strength in God, and without the hope of the life that is to come in the Lord, we will easily give in to despair. But God is always with us, by our side, guiding us and strengthening us throughout our journey, and as He has often demonstrated, even in our own lives, we should continue to entrust ourselves to Him and to walk ever more faithfully in His path, living our lives well and righteously so that we will always be good role models and inspirations for one another.

We should not be easily swayed and tempted by the many worldly temptations all around us, or by any desires for worldly matters and corruptions, all the pursuits of worldly glory, pleasures, ambitions and more among all those that we encounter in this world. And if we do encounter hardships in life, we must always remember that God is there by our side, supporting and guiding us all in each and every moments without fail. We may have to endure sufferings and hardships, but we must remember that God has suffered the ultimate suffering, rejection, ridicule and persecution for our sake, and He has endured what we are enduring as well. All of us are always in God’s good hands, and we ought to remember this fact.

May the Lord continue to strengthen and encourage us by His love, His grace and ever present guidance in our daily lives, so that we may always walk ever more graciously and with faith in the path that He has presented to us. Let us all continue to be upright and commit ourselves each day with ever more dedication and obedience to Him, now and always. Amen.

Wednesday, 7 June 2023 : 9th Week of Ordinary Time (Gospel Reading)

Liturgical Colour : Green

Mark 12 : 18-27

At that time, the Sadducees also came to Jesus. Since they claim that there is no resurrection, they questioned Him in this way, “Master, in the Scriptures Moses gave us this law : if anyone dies and leaves a wife but no children, his brother must take the woman, and with her have a baby, who will be considered the child of his deceased brother.”

“Now, there were seven brothers. The first married a wife, but he died without leaving any children. The second took the wife, and he also died leaving no children. The same thing happened to the third. In fact, all seven brothers died, leaving no children. Last of all the women died. Now, in the resurrection, to which of them will she be wife? For all seven brothers had her as wife.”

Jesus replied, “Is this not the reason you are mistaken, that you do not understand the Scriptures or the power of God? When they rise from the dead, men and women do not marry, but are like the Angels in heaven. Now, about the resurrection of the dead, have you never had thoughts about the burning bush in the book of Moses?”

“God said to Moses : I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. He is the God not of the dead but of the living. You are totally wrong.”

Wednesday, 7 June 2023 : 9th Week of Ordinary Time (Psalm)

Liturgical Colour : Green

Psalm 24 : 2-3, 4-5ab, 6 and 7bc, 8-9

In You my God I trust; let me not be put to shame, let not my enemies exult over me. Those who hope in You will never be humbled; those who turn away from You will suffer disgrace!

Teach me Your ways, o Lord; make known to me Your paths. Guide me in Your truth and instruct me, for You are my God, my Saviour.

Remember Your compassion, o Lord, Your unfailing love from of old. Remember not the sins of my youth, but in Your love remember me.

Good and upright, the Lord teaches sinners His way. He teaches the humble of heart and guides them in what is right.

Wednesday, 7 June 2023 : 9th Week of Ordinary Time (First Reading)

Liturgical Colour : Green

Tobit 3 : 1-11a, 16-17a

Distressed, I wept and prayed and expressing my sorrow, I said, “You are just, o Lord; all Your actions and all Your ways are merciful and just; Your judgments are always true and just. Remember me, Lord, and look on me. Do not punish me for my sins nor for the wrongs I have committed through ignorance.”

“Pardon the sins which my fathers have committed in Your sight, for they disobeyed Your commandments. You have allowed us to suffer pillage, captivity and death. You have allowed us to be mocked by all the pagan nations among whom we have been dispersed.”

“Ah well! All Your judgments are just when You choose to punish me for my sins and those of my fathers, because we have not accomplished Your will, nor have we sincerely obeyed Your commands. We have not walked before You in truth. Do with me as You will. Order my life taken from me, and turn me into dust, because I prefer death to life. In this way free me and let me return to dust.”

“It is better for me to die than to live, because these unjust reproaches have caused me great distress. Command that I be now released from trials, and let me enter my eternal dwelling place. Do not turn Your face away from me.”

That same day, at Ecbatana in Media, Sara, the daughter of Ragouel, was insulted in a similar way by her father’s young maidservants. Sara had had seven husbands, but the demon Asmodeus had killed each one of them before the marriage had been consummated.

The maidservants said, “It was you who killed your husbands. You have had seven husbands and you have not enjoyed marital relationship with any of them. Why do you punish us? Since they are dead, go and join them. May we never see a son or daughter of yours!”

That same day Sara was so distressed in mind that she went to the upper room in her father’s house. She wished to hang herself. But she thought better of it and said : “If people ever reproached my father and said to him : ‘You had an only daughter whom you cherished and she hanged herself because she was unhappy,’ I would cause my father in his old age to die of grief. It is better for me not to hang myself but to ask the Lord that I may die and not live to hear any more insults.”

At that moment she stretched forth her hands towards the window and prayed. The Lord in His glory heard the prayer of Tobit and Sara and He sent Raphael to heal them both – to give back his sight to Tobit and to give Sara, the daughter of Ragouel, to Tobit’s son Tobias, as his wife.

Tuesday, 6 June 2023 : 9th Week of Ordinary Time, Memorial of St. Norbert, Bishop (Homily and Scripture Reflections)

Liturgical Colour : Green or White (Bishops)

Dear brothers and sisters in Christ, today as we listened to the words of the Scriptures we are all reminded of the sufferings which we may have to face for having remained faithful to the Lord, all the trials and hardships that may be ours if we walk down this path that God has shown us. However, we must not lose faith because God has always been by our side, guiding us and being with us even in our most difficult moments. We are also reminded that in our lives in this world, we may often encounter moments when we are required to make compromises and to do as the world requires of us, as after all, we are still living in this world and are parts of how this world operates and works. We cannot totally and completely separate ourselves from the world, and as Christians, we are all expected to live our lives worthily in this world so as to proclaim by our lives and actions, the truth and glory of God, His Good News and all.

In our first reading today, from the Book of Tobit we heard of the account of how Tobit faced a very unfortunate circumstance of having to endure blindness, of not being able to see anything at all. Yet, despite all that he had to go through, Tobit did not lose heart and remained firmly steadfast in his righteousness and conviction to live honestly, and that caused some friction between him and those who were around him, his brothers and his own wife. Tobit was really suffering, much as another character from the Old Testament had also suffered, namely that of Job. Both Tobit and Job encountered unfortunate incidents that affected even their own flesh and health, with Tobit losing his eyesight while Job had to endure from itchy and painful boils, each of these having negative and debilitating effect on their health and also relationship with others around them.

Nonetheless they both remained righteous, upright and dedicated to God in all things, and they did not let fear or uncertainties to affect or distract them from their faith and trust in the Lord. Indeed, naturally they did waver from time to time, lamenting their conditions and the hardships that they had to face, but they never blamed God for their condition. Instead, they actually blamed themselves for their misfortunes and sufferings, and they convinced others that the Lord alone is the Master and the One Who rule over all things, and He alone is the One Who allows all things to happen, and all of us as His beloved people, as His servants have to follow the Lord and obey Him in all of His Law and commandments, and we must walk in the path that He has shown us. Then, as mentioned, we must also be good and upright in our lives in this world as well, in obeying whatever orders and laws that the worldly authorities around us have for us, as long as they do not directly contradict the Law of God.

In our Gospel passage today, that is what the Lord Jesus mentioned to His disciples and followers, and to those who went to Him to question and test Him, namely the Pharisees and the representatives of the chief priests, as they all tried to test and question Him on the matter of paying taxes to the Roman state and to the Emperor as was required of all those who came under the dominion of the Roman Empire. It was a really difficult situation for the Lord because no matter whether He answered yes or no to the question, He would have faced problem either way. The chief priests and the Pharisees would have wanted to trap the Lord by doing so, as if He answered yes to the question, then they could all accuse and discredit the Lord before the Jewish people, quite a few of whom back then harboured hatred against the Romans and refused to obey the laws and taxes imposed on them.

On the other hand, if the Lord had answered no to the question, then the chief priests and the Pharisees, some of whom had close ties to the Romans, could have then accused Him of disobedience and for trying to incite rebellion against the Roman rule. This was what they would later on accuse of the Lord of doing when they brought Him at the moment of His Passion to the Roman governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate, of the Lord Jesus claiming Himself to be the King of the Jews. Hence, either way, whether the Lord responded with a ‘yes’ or a ‘no’ to the question, it would have led to serious repercussions to the Lord and to His followers. But the Lord did not do that, and instead, He said that one ought to give to Caesar what belonged to Caesar, as the taxes were paid with the Roman coins that ultimately came from the Roman state itself, and one ought to give to God what belongs to God, that is ultimately, ourselves.

Through what the Lord had told His disciples and those who questioned and tested Him, the Lord wanted to highlight that we should live our lives well and obey whatever the law that the land and our states have, so long as they do not contradict the Divine Law and commandments. At the same time, we should also do our part in fulfilling the Law and commandments of the Lord as is expected of us. We should our lives in a righteous and worthy manner as Tobit and other faithful servants of the Lord, our holy predecessors had done. Are we all able to commit ourselves in such a way, brothers and sisters in Christ? Are we willing to devote ourselves ever more to the cause of the Lord? These are the things that we should ask ourselves as we continue living up to our Christian calling and mission in life. And we should also look upon the great examples set by our holy predecessors.

Today, the Church celebrates the feast of St. Norbert, also known as St. Norbert of Xanten, a German bishop and founder of the religious order known as the Premonstratensian Order of Canons Regular. He was a priest and preacher who was particularly concerned about the lax nature of discipline amongst the priests and the immorality, worldly vices and wickedness that had grown rampant at that time within the Church, among both the clergy and the laity alike. Through his efforts and works, the Premonstre Order of Canons Regular was established, with customs, rules and practices combining aspects of several other more established religious orders, inspiring many people from all origins to come and join his religious order, which soon grew quickly in various places and in different countries.

He was also appointed as the Archbishop of Magdeburg by the Pope, in which role he instituted wide-ranging reforms in his local diocese, in uprooting the many corrupt practices of the Church and the community at that time. Not everyone approved and supported St. Norbert’s actions, and he faced not a few assassination attempts by those who disagreed with him and his reform works and efforts. Yet, all of those did not discourage St. Norbert who continued to carry out his reforms and works, a spirit and commitment that remain inspirational to countless generations of Christians right up to this day. St. Norbert never wavered in his hard work and efforts to lead more and more souls ever closer towards the Lord, and to help many to become more disciplined in how they lived their lives and in how they carried out their Christian actions.

Brothers and sisters in Christ, today let us all therefore reflect on the words of the Scriptures that we have received and the actions and life of St. Norbert that we have just discussed. Let us all always remember to live our lives worthily of the Lord as we should, and learn to discipline ourselves and keep ourselves aligned to the Lord and to His path at all times. Let us all follow the footsteps of the faithful servants of God and be good examples and role models of faith ourselves, now and always. Amen.